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****Raw Video: San Bruno Surveillance Cameras Capture meteor strike followed by fireball detonation****
Ms Sans Serif
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[quote:Anonymous Coward 1099002:MV8xMTg5NjE0XzE5MzEwNTAzXzQzNUIzNTYz] Max life expectancy for these pipes is 40-50 years. They are in the range. Now, add to that: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message1157892/pg1 from: [color=red][b]SPACE WEATHER EFFECTS CATALOGUE[/b][/color] http://www.esa-spaceweather.net/spweather/esa_initiatives/spweatherstudies/RAL/ESWS-FMI-RP-0001_2.2.pdf [b]2.4.3. Pipelines[/b] [i]Buried oil and gas pipelines are prone to corrosion, which may occur at points where an electric current flows from the metal into the surrounding earth. Therefore pipelines are covered by an insulating coating. The insulation is, however, not perfect, and particularly problematic are possible holes in the coating. To avoid corrosion, pipelines are equipped with a cathodic protection system (Von Baeckamn et al., 1997) which tries to keep the pipeline in a negative potential of roughly 1 V with respect to the soil. Different harmful processes may take place if the negative potential becomes too large, so the adjustment of the potential has to be careful. GIC flowing along pipelines are accompanied by voltages between the pipeline and the Earth (Boteler, 2000; Brasse and Junge, 1984; Campbell, 1980). [b]GIC are not hazardous regarding corrosion issues but the pipe-to-soil voltage variations related to GIC can easily exceed the cathodic potential making the protection thus invalid[/b] (Gummow, 1999). [b]Today’s coatings have orders of magnitude higher resistance than those used earlier. This results in larger pipe-to-soil potentials, thus significantly increasing the risk of corrosion at defects in the coating.[/b] [b]How much pipe-to-soil voltages induced by space weather effects really increase the corrosion rate of a pipeline is still a somewhat open question, and estimates about times before the wall of a pipeline is seriously damaged vary in a wide range[/b] (Martin, 1993; Campbell, 1978; Henriksen et al., 1978; Gideon, 1971). [b]Besides a direct contribution to corrosion, geomagnetically induced pipe-to-soil voltages are a nuisance when measuring cathodic protection parameters and making control surveys (Barker and Skinner, 1980). The measurement results may be completely incorrect and thus lead to erroneous conclusions.[/b] Similarly to a power system, the magnitudes of GIC along a pipeline network and of pipe-to-soil voltages depend both on the geophysical situation and on the details of the network. Model calculations supported by measurements of geomagnetic variations can be performed to reveal the most problematic regions in a pipeline network (Boteler and Seager, 1998). [b]In general, the pipe-to-soil voltages are larger at in homogeneities of the system, such as ends, bends and branches of the pipeline, changes in the material or size of the pipeline, or variations in the Earth’s conductivity.[/b] The adjustment distance that expresses the length of the area in which the inhomogeneity affects is typically in the order of tens of kilometres. [b]Long pipelines experience larger geomagnetically induced pipe-tosoil voltages than shorter ones.[/b] Therefore, pipelines are sometimes electrically interrupted by installing insulating flanges in series with metallic pipeline parts (Camitz et al., 1997). Such a procedure may really decrease the largest voltages appearing but at the same time increases the number of inhomogeneities. Therefore, all effects of insulating flanges have to be carefully analysed, and the final solution is a compromise. [b]To avoid the problems caused by geomagnetic storms to buried pipelines, the industry has to be aware of the risk produced by GIC and induced pipe-to-soil voltages. A possibility of forecasting geomagnetic storms will help avoid making control measurements during times of a high probability of disturbances.[/b] A forecast of a magnetic storm also gives a reason to check that the corrosion protection systems are in full operation. In general, space weather risk has not been investigated as much in pipelines as in power systems. Recent investigations (Pirjola et al., 1999) containing improved tools for model calculations are improving the situation, and at present an international “pipeline-GIC” study with eight companies involved is being finished.[/i] [/quote]
At the 10 second mark of video a hail of space rocks located to the far left at the middle of the screen flurryb down then an explosion....
No wonder witnesses heard a loud airborne whoosh.
Don't believe me check it out...
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