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[quote:Swinging on Spirals:MV8xOTI4ODE0XzMyMzI2OTg0XzE3MENCOUEw] [b]Heliophysics Nugget: Riding the Plasma Wave[/b] [quote:observation] This material that pervades the universe, making up the stars and our sun, and also - far less densely, of course - the vast interstellar spaces in between, is called plasma. Plasmas are similar to gases, and indeed are made of familiar stuff such as hydrogen, helium, and even heavier elements like iron, but each particle carries electrical charge and the particles tend to move together as they do in a fluid. Understanding the way the plasma moves under the combined laws of motion we know on Earth and the less intuitive (to most Earthlings, at least) electromagnetic forces, lies at the heart of understanding the events that spur giant explosions on the sun as well as changes in Earth's own magnetic environment - the magnetosphere. Understanding this mysterious world of plasma, however, is not easy. With its complex rules of motion, the study of plasmas is rife with minute details to be teased out. "Which particles are moving, what is the source of energy for the motion, how does a moving wave interact with the particles themselves, do the wave fields rotate to the right or to the left - all of these get classified," says Lynn Wilson who is a space plasma physicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. ... For the study, Wilson examined coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - clouds of solar material that burst off the sun and travel through space - that move so much faster than the background solar wind that they create shock waves. These shock waves are similar to those produced by a supersonic jet when it moves faster than the speed of sound in our atmosphere. "A bow shock is a little like a snow plow," says Adam Szabo, a space scientist at Goddard who is a co-author on the paper and also the project scientist for Wind. "The wave picks up particles that are traveling more slowly and speeds them up, piling them up in front as it moves." Of course, the snow plow is a non-magnetic analogy, and that's where things get sticky. With a snow plow one would never expect a cloud of snowflakes to magically lift up from the shock and begin to speed ahead, streaming down the street faster than the rest of the plow's pile. But in the magnetized gas ahead of the shock, Wind observed a large wave in the plasma - a wave moving faster than it should be able to travel if it had been made by the shock. The wave in this case is called a Whistler wave. (Classification, for those who want the nitty gritty: an electromagnetic wave, carried by electrons, right polarized, propagates obliquely to the magnetic field.) Since the wave couldn't be created by the shock, the Wind observations suggest that perhaps the waves are created by instabilities out in front of the shock. This is not in itself surprising. The Wind data used by Wilson can measure magnetic field information at 1875 samples per second and new qualities of observations always produce new sights. But the team is surprised by how large the waves are. "The waves are massive," says Wilson. "They are almost as big as the shock itself." .. So, this suggests that shocks and the instabilities they create may play a larger role in transferring the energy from the plasma's bulk movement into heat, than previously thought. Wilson believes that the instabilities caused something called perpendicular ion heating - a process that increases the random kinetic energy of the positively-charged ions in a direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The waves also added energy to the negatively-charged electrons - with the greatest effects observed not being heating, the random kinetic energy, but bulk acceleration in a direction parallel to the magnetic field. "The same type of wave-particle interaction is thought to happen in solar flares, the heating of the sun's corona, and supernova blast waves," says Wilson. "All of these energizations have very similar properties. Now we have evidence that these Whistler-like fluctuations may be causing heating in all these places."[/quote] http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Heliophysics_Nugget_Riding_the_Plasma_Wave_999.html [/quote]
An X-2 class solar flare recently missed a direct impact with Earth.
Heliophysicists classify solar flares according to their brightness in X-ray wavelengths. C-class flares are the smallest on the scale, with X-ray measurements in the 10^-6 watts per square meter range (W/m^2), while X-class flares can exceed 10^-4 W/m^2. Why is that important?
An X-2 solar flare has enough energy to overload satellite circuits and disrupt other forms of communication should its full force be directed at Earth.
Modern astronomers believe that solar flares, or coronal mass ejections (CME), occur when magnetic reconnection events in the Sun’s atmosphere cause a short circuit in magnetic field lines. According to one theory, “magnetic energy” then accelerates the superheated gases into space. Although no one knows what “magnetic reconnection” is, it is the only explanation offered................
link to www.thunderbolts.info
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