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05/08/2010 06:25 PM
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Halliburton Powerpoint Presentation
[link to www.aade.org]

Extremely large deposits of methane hydrates have
been found under sediments on the ocean floors.

About 6.4 trillion tons of methane gas is trapped in
deposits of methane hydrates.

Methane hydrate is a solid form of water containing
large amounts of methane within its crystal

Methane hydrates are formed by migration of gas
from great depths along geological faults, followed
by precipitation, or crystallization, on contact of the
rising gas stream with cold seawater.

Hydrate Stability
Pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT)

When do hydrates become unstable?

Will cement hydration cause this outcome?

1 L methane hydrate downhole ~ 168 L
methane gas at STP

Gas release is a challenge for safety and
Destabilization Zone

Shallow water flow may occur during or after cement job

Under water blow out has happened

Gas flow may occur after a cement job in deepwater
environments that contain major hydrate zones.

Destabilization of hydrates after the cement job is
confirmed by downhole cameras.

The gas flow could slow down in hours to days if the de-
stabilization is not severe.

However, the consequences could be more severe in worse


Halliburton In Spotlight in Gulf spill probe
[link to articles.latimes.com]

After an exploration well is drilled, cement slurry is pumped through a steel pipe or casing and out through a check valve at the bottom of the casing. It then travels up the outside of the pipe, sheathing the part of the pipe surrounded by the oil and gas zone. When the cement hardens, it is supposed to prevent oil or gas from leaking into adjacent zones along the pipe.

As the cement sets, the check valve at the end of the casing prevents any material from flowing back up the pipe. The zone is thus isolated until the company is ready to start production.

The process is tricky. A 2007 study by the U.S. Minerals Management Service found that cementing was the single most-important factor in 18 of 39 well blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico over a 14-year period.

Halliburton has been accused of performing a poor cement job in the case of a major blowout in the Timor Sea off Australia last August. An investigation is underway.

In its statement, the company said: "Halliburton originated oilfield cementing and leads the world in effective, efficient delivery of zonal isolation and engineering for the life of the well, conducting thousands of successful well-cementing jobs each year."

The company had four employees stationed on the rig at the time of the gulf accident, all of whom were rescued by the Coast Guard. It had completed the final cementing of the well and pipe 20 hours before the blowout April 20.