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Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?

 
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Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
In the late 1980′s, perfectly preserved 4,000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Chinese desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn’t appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they may have been the citizens of an ancient civilization of Aryans that existed in the east.

The mummies had long noses and skulls, blond or red hair, thin lips, deepset eyes, and other unmistakably Caucasian features. Dr. Victor H. Mair of the University of Pennsylvania said, “The Tarim Basin Caucasoid corpses are almost certainly representatives of the Indo-European family”.

Ancient Greek and Chinese historians had long referenced a unique cultural and ethnic group on its western frontier with red hair and blue eyes, a group that settled ancient Afghanistan and forged a vibrant Buddhist empire that spread Buddhism to much of the the world through China and India. But when 4,000-year-old mummies were unearthed in the early 20th century in the Tarim Basin of the western Chinese desert with blatant “white” physiognomy and clothing of apparently European origin, historians, anthropologists, and archeologists were awestruck. The tenuous ethnocultural issue made this a serious issue:

Europeans emphasized the role of “Europeans” in creating an ancient frontier civilization that brought a world religion to Asia; Chinese scholars refused to believe that significant foundations of their history were “imported,” and the modern residents of the Tarim region (Xinjiang) — the Muslim Uyghurs — insist that they were the original natives of the region.

The Europoid Tarim mummies are some of the oldest and best preserved corpses in the world, protected by the extremely dry climate of East Turkestan. Blatantly related to one of the races of European origin, they give us one of the earliest looks yet at the migratory movement, culture, and civilization of early European peoples.

A number of cultural or ethnic groups lived in the same area as the ancient Caucasian mummies and may have moved southward to Afghanistan. Some had red hair and blue eyes as shown on Chinese artwork. The Tocharians are identified as this European-featured bringer of Buddhism. But are they related to the blatantly genetically European mummies, or did the Chinese merely see another racial group like the Iranians with recessive features? Tracing these peoples’ history allows us to better determine whether or not it was this ancient white European culture of mummies that forever shaped the evolution of Asia or not.

Some major physical evidence we have to determine whether these Buddhist missionaries were related to the mummies is from Chinese frescoes, imagery, and literature depicting their strange western neighbors bringing them a new religion. Chinese sources depict what they call the Yuezhi and what Greeks called Tocharians as quite foreign in their dress, culture, and appearance. Chinese art shows pale-skinned, red-headed, blue-eyed monks with beards obviously from a race and culture very different from the Han Chinese. Sporting partially-shaved heads, dangling earlobes, and the lotus-shaped hand posture, these white Europoids are obviously Buddhist monks bringing the new faith to the Chinese along commercial and migratory routes that they had followed when they left the Tarim Basin for Afghanistan. The entire facial appearance of the white Buddhist missionaries is different: the original artists did not simply depict humanoids in general or Chinese men with red hair. They were portraying a very foreign racial group.

Their graveyard, known as Small River Cemetery No. 5, lies near a dried-up riverbed in the Tarim Basin, a region encircled by forbidding mountain ranges. Most of the basin is occupied by the Taklimakan Desert, a wilderness so inhospitable that later travelers along the Silk Road would edge along its northern or southern borders.

In modern times the region has been occupied by Turkish-speaking Uighurs, joined in the last 50 years by Han settlers from China. Ethnic tensions have recently arisen between the two groups, with riots in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. A large number of ancient mummies, really desiccated corpses, have emerged from the sands, only to become pawns between the Uighurs and the Han.

The mummies in the Small River Cemetery are, so far, the oldest discovered in the Tarim Basin. Carbon tests done at Beijing University show that the oldest part dates to 3,980 years ago. A team of Chinese geneticists has analyzed the mummies’ DNA.

Despite the political tensions over the mummies’ origin, the Chinese said in a report published last month in the journal BMC Biology that the people were of mixed ancestry, having both European and some Siberian genetic markers. The team was led by Hui Zhou of Jilin University in Changchun, with Dr. Jin as a co-author.

As the Chinese archaeologists dug through the five layers of burials, Dr. Mair recounted, they came across almost 200 poles, each 13 feet tall. Many had flat blades, painted black and red, like the oars from some great galley that had foundered beneath the waves of sand.

At the foot of each pole there were indeed boats, laid upside down and covered with cowhide. The bodies inside the boats were still wearing the clothes they had been buried in. They had felt caps with feathers tucked in the brim, uncannily resembling Tyrolean mountain hats. They wore large woolen capes with tassels and leather boots. A Bronze Age salesclerk from Victoria’s Secret seems to have supplied the clothes beneath — barely adequate woolen loin cloths for the men, and skirts made of string strands for the women.

Within each boat coffin were grave goods, including beautifully woven grass baskets, skillfully carved masks and bundles of ephedra, an herb that may have been used in rituals or as a medicine.

In the women’s coffins, the Chinese archaeologists encountered one or more life-size wooden phalluses laid on the body or by its side. Looking again at the shaping of the 13-foot poles that rise from the prow of each woman’s boat, the archaeologists concluded that the poles were in fact gigantic phallic symbols. Arthur Wolf, an anthropologist at Stanford University and an expert on fertility in East Asia, said that the poles perhaps mark social status, a common theme of tombs and grave goods.

Dr. Mair said the Chinese archaeologists’ interpretation of the poles as phallic symbols was “a believable analysis.” The buried people’s evident veneration of procreation could mean they were interested in both the pleasure of sex and its utility, given that it is difficult to separate the two. But they seem to have had particular respect for fertility, Dr. Mair said, because several women were buried in double-layered coffins with special grave goods.

The language spoken by the people of the Small River Cemetery is unknown, but Dr. Mair believes it could have been Tokharian, an ancient member of the Indo-European family of languages. Manuscripts written in Tokharian have been discovered in the Tarim Basin.

The Small River Cemetery people lived more than 2,000 years before the earliest evidence for Tokharian, but there is “a clear continuity of culture,” Dr. Mair said, in the form of people being buried with felt hats, a tradition that continued until the first few centuries A.D

[link to www.articlesafari.com]
Anonymous Coward
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12/20/2010 02:39 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
How the hell does that mean they had a civilization in Asia? For all we know they were traveling nomads; Europeans like to explore.

Or another conclusion would be Europeans came from Asia, which is as absurd as the conclusion made in your thread.
Anonymous Coward
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
How the hell does that mean they had a civilization in Asia? For all we know they were traveling nomads; Europeans like to explore.

Or another conclusion would be Europeans came from Asia, which is as absurd as the conclusion made in your thread.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 02:42 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
How the hell does that mean they had a civilization in Asia? For all we know they were traveling nomads; Europeans like to explore.

Or another conclusion would be Europeans came from Asia, which is as absurd as the conclusion made in your thread.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1179904



It's upsurd because of your weak education

research china pyramids and
DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 02:55 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
In the late 1980′s, perfectly preserved 4,000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Chinese desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn’t appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they may have been the citizens of an ancient civilization of Aryans that existed in the east.

The mummies had long noses and skulls, blond or red hair, thin lips, deepset eyes, and other unmistakably Caucasian features. Dr. Victor H. Mair of the University of Pennsylvania said, “The Tarim Basin Caucasoid corpses are almost certainly representatives of the Indo-European family”.

Ancient Greek and Chinese historians had long referenced a unique cultural and ethnic group on its western frontier with red hair and blue eyes, a group that settled ancient Afghanistan and forged a vibrant Buddhist empire that spread Buddhism to much of the the world through China and India. But when 4,000-year-old mummies were unearthed in the early 20th century in the Tarim Basin of the western Chinese desert with blatant “white” physiognomy and clothing of apparently European origin, historians, anthropologists, and archeologists were awestruck. The tenuous ethnocultural issue made this a serious issue:

Europeans emphasized the role of “Europeans” in creating an ancient frontier civilization that brought a world religion to Asia; Chinese scholars refused to believe that significant foundations of their history were “imported,” and the modern residents of the Tarim region (Xinjiang) — the Muslim Uyghurs — insist that they were the original natives of the region.

The Europoid Tarim mummies are some of the oldest and best preserved corpses in the world, protected by the extremely dry climate of East Turkestan. Blatantly related to one of the races of European origin, they give us one of the earliest looks yet at the migratory movement, culture, and civilization of early European peoples.

A number of cultural or ethnic groups lived in the same area as the ancient Caucasian mummies and may have moved southward to Afghanistan. Some had red hair and blue eyes as shown on Chinese artwork. The Tocharians are identified as this European-featured bringer of Buddhism. But are they related to the blatantly genetically European mummies, or did the Chinese merely see another racial group like the Iranians with recessive features? Tracing these peoples’ history allows us to better determine whether or not it was this ancient white European culture of mummies that forever shaped the evolution of Asia or not.

Some major physical evidence we have to determine whether these Buddhist missionaries were related to the mummies is from Chinese frescoes, imagery, and literature depicting their strange western neighbors bringing them a new religion. Chinese sources depict what they call the Yuezhi and what Greeks called Tocharians as quite foreign in their dress, culture, and appearance. Chinese art shows pale-skinned, red-headed, blue-eyed monks with beards obviously from a race and culture very different from the Han Chinese. Sporting partially-shaved heads, dangling earlobes, and the lotus-shaped hand posture, these white Europoids are obviously Buddhist monks bringing the new faith to the Chinese along commercial and migratory routes that they had followed when they left the Tarim Basin for Afghanistan. The entire facial appearance of the white Buddhist missionaries is different: the original artists did not simply depict humanoids in general or Chinese men with red hair. They were portraying a very foreign racial group.

Their graveyard, known as Small River Cemetery No. 5, lies near a dried-up riverbed in the Tarim Basin, a region encircled by forbidding mountain ranges. Most of the basin is occupied by the Taklimakan Desert, a wilderness so inhospitable that later travelers along the Silk Road would edge along its northern or southern borders.

In modern times the region has been occupied by Turkish-speaking Uighurs, joined in the last 50 years by Han settlers from China. Ethnic tensions have recently arisen between the two groups, with riots in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. A large number of ancient mummies, really desiccated corpses, have emerged from the sands, only to become pawns between the Uighurs and the Han.

The mummies in the Small River Cemetery are, so far, the oldest discovered in the Tarim Basin. Carbon tests done at Beijing University show that the oldest part dates to 3,980 years ago. A team of Chinese geneticists has analyzed the mummies’ DNA.

Despite the political tensions over the mummies’ origin, the Chinese said in a report published last month in the journal BMC Biology that the people were of mixed ancestry, having both European and some Siberian genetic markers. The team was led by Hui Zhou of Jilin University in Changchun, with Dr. Jin as a co-author.

As the Chinese archaeologists dug through the five layers of burials, Dr. Mair recounted, they came across almost 200 poles, each 13 feet tall. Many had flat blades, painted black and red, like the oars from some great galley that had foundered beneath the waves of sand.

At the foot of each pole there were indeed boats, laid upside down and covered with cowhide. The bodies inside the boats were still wearing the clothes they had been buried in. They had felt caps with feathers tucked in the brim, uncannily resembling Tyrolean mountain hats. They wore large woolen capes with tassels and leather boots. A Bronze Age salesclerk from Victoria’s Secret seems to have supplied the clothes beneath — barely adequate woolen loin cloths for the men, and skirts made of string strands for the women.

Within each boat coffin were grave goods, including beautifully woven grass baskets, skillfully carved masks and bundles of ephedra, an herb that may have been used in rituals or as a medicine.

In the women’s coffins, the Chinese archaeologists encountered one or more life-size wooden phalluses laid on the body or by its side. Looking again at the shaping of the 13-foot poles that rise from the prow of each woman’s boat, the archaeologists concluded that the poles were in fact gigantic phallic symbols. Arthur Wolf, an anthropologist at Stanford University and an expert on fertility in East Asia, said that the poles perhaps mark social status, a common theme of tombs and grave goods.

Dr. Mair said the Chinese archaeologists’ interpretation of the poles as phallic symbols was “a believable analysis.” The buried people’s evident veneration of procreation could mean they were interested in both the pleasure of sex and its utility, given that it is difficult to separate the two. But they seem to have had particular respect for fertility, Dr. Mair said, because several women were buried in double-layered coffins with special grave goods.

The language spoken by the people of the Small River Cemetery is unknown, but Dr. Mair believes it could have been Tokharian, an ancient member of the Indo-European family of languages. Manuscripts written in Tokharian have been discovered in the Tarim Basin.

The Small River Cemetery people lived more than 2,000 years before the earliest evidence for Tokharian, but there is “a clear continuity of culture,” Dr. Mair said, in the form of people being buried with felt hats, a tradition that continued until the first few centuries A.D

[link to www.articlesafari.com]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 959838

This is similar to Michael Tsarion's view of things...

After the fall of Atlantis , survivors traveled across Europe, and the Middle East, taking with them what knowledge they had, to try to rebuild humanity. Some settled in various places in Europe, others were responsible for Egypt.

Not much of a stretch to think the made it to Asia also.
"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 02:59 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
From the OP's original link...


"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
89446

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12/20/2010 03:00 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
bump
Sol Dominvs Imperi Romani
Imperium Romanum Sacrum
In Varietate Concordia
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 03:00 PM
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Iran is famous for the ancient Aryan religion based upon the fabled figure "Zoroaster." Iran means roughly "land of the Aryans" and was located right next door to ancient Sumer. What many people do NOT know is that Zoroaster followers were in Asia BEFORE seemingly migrating to the Middle East area of Iran. The Rig Vedas mention fair skinned and red haired deities, there are HUNDREDS of European Tocharian mummies found around the famed Silk Road of ancient Asia, and here we have clear evidence of the Aryan Zoroaster followers making their way from ancient India down into what we presently call Iran (ancient Persia).
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DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 03:03 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
How the hell does that mean they had a civilization in Asia? For all we know they were traveling nomads; Europeans like to explore.

Or another conclusion would be Europeans came from Asia, which is as absurd as the conclusion made in your thread.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1179904

Lol, did you even read the article?
"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 03:05 PM
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Iran is famous for the ancient Aryan religion based upon the fabled figure "Zoroaster." Iran means roughly "land of the Aryans" and was located right next door to ancient Sumer (SUM-ARYANS). What many people do NOT know is that Zoroaster followers were in Asia BEFORE seemingly migrating to the Middle East area of Iran. Archaeologists have found temples, a palace, and artifacts left behind by the ARYANS who followed Zoroaster in India of all places !!



Many politically correct JOKES have tried to cover up these issues over the years, such as why the Rig Vedas mention fair skinned and red haired deities, etc... When you look at the HUNDREDS of European Tocharian mummies found around the famed Silk Road of ancient Asia, then you put that together with the WHITE deities from the Vedas themselves, along with other evidence, the TRUTH starts to become overwhelming. The Aryans FOUNDED civlization in India and most other parts of the world, and here we have clear evidence of the Aryan Zoroaster followers making their way from ancient India down into what we presently call Iran (ancient Persia).



After years of controversy and political intrigue, archaeologists using genetic testing have proven that Caucasians roamed China's Tarim Basin thousands of years before East Asian people arrived.

The research, which the Chinese government has appeared to have delayed making public out of concerns of fueling Uighur Muslim separatism in its western-most Xinjiang region, is based on a cache of ancient dried-out corpses that have been found around the Tarim Basin in recent decades.

"It is unfortunate that the issue has been so politicized because it has created a lot of difficulties," Victor Mair, a specialist in the ancient corpses and co-author of "Mummies of the Tarim Basin", told AFP.

"It would be better for everyone to approach this from a purely scientific and historical perspective."

The discoveries in the 1980s of the undisturbed 4,000-year-old "Beauty of Loulan" and the younger 3,000-year-old body of the "Charchan Man" are legendary in world archaeological circles for the fine state of their preservation and for the wealth of knowledge they bring to modern research.

In historic and scientific circles the discoveries along the ancient Silk Road were on a par with finding the Egyptian mummies.

But China's concern over its rule in restive Xinjiang has widely been perceived as impeding faster research into them and greater publicity of the findings.

The desiccated corpses, which avoided natural decomposition due to the dry atmosphere and alkaline soils in the Tarim Basin, have not only given scientists a look into their physical biologies, but their clothes, tools and burial rituals have given historians a glimpse into life in the Bronze Age.

Mair, who played a pivotal role in bringing the discoveries to Western scholars in the 1990s, has worked tirelessly to get Chinese approval to take samples out of China for definitive genetic testing.

One expedition in recent years succeeded in collecting 52 samples with the aide of Chinese researchers, but later Mair's hosts had a change of heart and only let five of them out of the country.

"I spent six months in Sweden last year doing nothing but genetic research," Mair said from his home in the United States where he teaches at the University of Pennsylvania.

"My research has shown that in the second millennium BC, the oldest mummies, like the Loulan Beauty, were the earliest settlers in the Tarim Basin.

"From the evidence available, we have found that during the first 1,000 years after the Loulan Beauty, the only settlers in the Tarim Basin were Caucasoid."

East Asian peoples only began showing up in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, Mair said, while the Uighur peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, largely based in modern day Mongolia, around the year 842.

"Modern DNA and ancient DNA show that Uighurs, Kazaks, Krygyzs, the peoples of Central Asia are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. The modern and ancient DNA tell the same story," he said.

Mair hopes to publish his new findings in the coming months.

China has only allowed the genetic studies in the last few years, with a 2004 study carried out by Jilin University also finding that the mummies' DNA had Europoid genes, further proving that the earliest settlers of Western China were not East Asians.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 03:10 PM
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DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 03:12 PM
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Iran is famous for the ancient Aryan religion based upon the fabled figure "Zoroaster." Iran means roughly "land of the Aryans" and was located right next door to ancient Sumer. What many people do NOT know is that Zoroaster followers were in Asia BEFORE seemingly migrating to the Middle East area of Iran. The Rig Vedas mention fair skinned and red haired deities, there are HUNDREDS of European Tocharian mummies found around the famed Silk Road of ancient Asia, and here we have clear evidence of the Aryan Zoroaster followers making their way from ancient India down into what we presently call Iran (ancient Persia).
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 959838

Neat video, a little bit of "climate change" propaganda, but that's to be expected of anything placed on the boob tube...

burnit

At 2:31 they talk about this new found civilization making a sacred drink, in a large mortar and pestle, that contained: Poppy, cannabis and ephedra! Wow, potent drink...

afro
"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 03:16 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
Excellent stuff OP. 5 stars.
"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 03:17 PM
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Anonymous Coward
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12/20/2010 03:37 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
At 2:31 they talk about this new found civilization making a sacred drink, in a large mortar and pestle, that contained: Poppy, cannabis and ephedra! Wow, potent drink...

afro
 Quoting: DanfromtheHills



i would like to sample!
DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 03:43 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
At 2:31 they talk about this new found civilization making a sacred drink, in a large mortar and pestle, that contained: Poppy, cannabis and ephedra! Wow, potent drink...

afro



i would like to sample!
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1201527

Indeed.

That cocktail would have you feeling good for most of the day.

Last Edited by DanfromtheHills on 12/20/2010 03:43 PM
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DanfromtheHills

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12/20/2010 03:46 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
It's becoming obvious that our picture of human life, from 4000bc to 2000bc, is going to need revised.

Zahi Hawass can kiss my ass.

Last Edited by DanfromtheHills on 12/20/2010 03:48 PM
"Nothing to see here, go back to sheep..." --- AC 1251379
Anonymous Coward
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12/20/2010 04:28 PM
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It's becoming obvious that our picture of human life, from 4000bc to 2000bc, is going to need revised.

Zahi Hawass can kiss my ass.
 Quoting: DanfromtheHills

Oh yes.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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12/20/2010 04:30 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
It's becoming obvious that our picture of human life, from 4000bc to 2000bc, is going to need revised.

Zahi Hawass can kiss my ass.

Oh yes.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 742532


If you want to know about Egypt pre Alexander the Great, look up where Scotland got it's name ;)
Anonymous Coward
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12/20/2010 04:33 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
aryan as in indian/punjab...yes. they invented buddhism, aryan as in the aryan brotherhood prison gang, no.
Anonymous Coward
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12/20/2010 04:51 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
It's becoming obvious that our picture of human life, from 4000bc to 2000bc, is going to need revised.

Zahi Hawass can kiss my ass.

Oh yes.


If you want to know about Egypt pre Alexander the Great, look up where Scotland got it's name ;)
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 959838

LOL.
I do know that stuff.
Saka/Scythian/Scottish.
Scythians to Ireland via Egypt.
It's good to see you putting it out there and tying all the pieces of the puzzle together.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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01/09/2011 02:39 AM
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aryan as in indian/punjab...yes. they invented buddhism, aryan as in the aryan brotherhood prison gang, no.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1201688



lol.. Indian sanskrit is not the first amigo, sorry

[link to www.articlesafari.com]
Anonymous Coward
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01/09/2011 02:59 AM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
Arya: Ancient Sanskrit word for he who is capable of rising above himself, thereby liberating himself from the illusion of being.

In contrast, modern day so-called Aryans have a penchant for mirror gazing.
Anonymous Coward
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01/09/2011 03:02 AM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
Well guys, i really think bob dean was right......

Some scify series seem to have inside info.

If you look at stargate and the history of the ancients, wich came back to earth FROM atlantis and created the first cultures and lived with the humans.....

somehow it makes sence
Anonymous Coward
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01/09/2011 12:27 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
Well guys, i really think bob dean was right......

Some scify series seem to have inside info.

If you look at stargate and the history of the ancients, wich came back to earth FROM atlantis and created the first cultures and lived with the humans.....

somehow it makes sence
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1035843



Yes, I agree!

I think syfy has become an outlet for information of ancient culture and beliefs that would otherwise not get on regular television. But, on the other hand, this information is interesting and not common knowledge to the average television audience, so it is easier to use for a plot device than to invent your own.

The archons are soaking up all our epinoia!
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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01/22/2011 02:12 PM
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Anonymous Coward
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01/22/2011 02:20 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
How the hell does that mean they had a civilization in Asia? For all we know they were traveling nomads; Europeans like to explore.

Or another conclusion would be Europeans came from Asia, which is as absurd as the conclusion made in your thread.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1179904


the vikings were trading with the chinese 5000 years bc
FlipTheMyk1984

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01/22/2011 06:15 PM
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
The Philippines has the most pyramids in Asia... we have the chocolate hills and consists of 1776 pyramids in total
Anonymous Coward
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Re: Aryan Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?
In the late 1980′s, perfectly preserved 4,000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Chinese desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn’t appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they may have been the citizens of an ancient civilization of Aryans that existed in the east.

The mummies had long noses and skulls, blond or red hair, thin lips, deepset eyes, and other unmistakably Caucasian features. Dr. Victor H. Mair of the University of Pennsylvania said, “The Tarim Basin Caucasoid corpses are almost certainly representatives of the Indo-European family”.

Ancient Greek and Chinese historians had long referenced a unique cultural and ethnic group on its western frontier with red hair and blue eyes, a group that settled ancient Afghanistan and forged a vibrant Buddhist empire that spread Buddhism to much of the the world through China and India. But when 4,000-year-old mummies were unearthed in the early 20th century in the Tarim Basin of the western Chinese desert with blatant “white” physiognomy and clothing of apparently European origin, historians, anthropologists, and archeologists were awestruck. The tenuous ethnocultural issue made this a serious issue:

Europeans emphasized the role of “Europeans” in creating an ancient frontier civilization that brought a world religion to Asia; Chinese scholars refused to believe that significant foundations of their history were “imported,” and the modern residents of the Tarim region (Xinjiang) — the Muslim Uyghurs — insist that they were the original natives of the region.

The Europoid Tarim mummies are some of the oldest and best preserved corpses in the world, protected by the extremely dry climate of East Turkestan. Blatantly related to one of the races of European origin, they give us one of the earliest looks yet at the migratory movement, culture, and civilization of early European peoples.

A number of cultural or ethnic groups lived in the same area as the ancient Caucasian mummies and may have moved southward to Afghanistan. Some had red hair and blue eyes as shown on Chinese artwork. The Tocharians are identified as this European-featured bringer of Buddhism. But are they related to the blatantly genetically European mummies, or did the Chinese merely see another racial group like the Iranians with recessive features? Tracing these peoples’ history allows us to better determine whether or not it was this ancient white European culture of mummies that forever shaped the evolution of Asia or not.

Some major physical evidence we have to determine whether these Buddhist missionaries were related to the mummies is from Chinese frescoes, imagery, and literature depicting their strange western neighbors bringing them a new religion. Chinese sources depict what they call the Yuezhi and what Greeks called Tocharians as quite foreign in their dress, culture, and appearance. Chinese art shows pale-skinned, red-headed, blue-eyed monks with beards obviously from a race and culture very different from the Han Chinese. Sporting partially-shaved heads, dangling earlobes, and the lotus-shaped hand posture, these white Europoids are obviously Buddhist monks bringing the new faith to the Chinese along commercial and migratory routes that they had followed when they left the Tarim Basin for Afghanistan. The entire facial appearance of the white Buddhist missionaries is different: the original artists did not simply depict humanoids in general or Chinese men with red hair. They were portraying a very foreign racial group.

Their graveyard, known as Small River Cemetery No. 5, lies near a dried-up riverbed in the Tarim Basin, a region encircled by forbidding mountain ranges. Most of the basin is occupied by the Taklimakan Desert, a wilderness so inhospitable that later travelers along the Silk Road would edge along its northern or southern borders.

In modern times the region has been occupied by Turkish-speaking Uighurs, joined in the last 50 years by Han settlers from China. Ethnic tensions have recently arisen between the two groups, with riots in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. A large number of ancient mummies, really desiccated corpses, have emerged from the sands, only to become pawns between the Uighurs and the Han.

The mummies in the Small River Cemetery are, so far, the oldest discovered in the Tarim Basin. Carbon tests done at Beijing University show that the oldest part dates to 3,980 years ago. A team of Chinese geneticists has analyzed the mummies’ DNA.

Despite the political tensions over the mummies’ origin, the Chinese said in a report published last month in the journal BMC Biology that the people were of mixed ancestry, having both European and some Siberian genetic markers. The team was led by Hui Zhou of Jilin University in Changchun, with Dr. Jin as a co-author.

As the Chinese archaeologists dug through the five layers of burials, Dr. Mair recounted, they came across almost 200 poles, each 13 feet tall. Many had flat blades, painted black and red, like the oars from some great galley that had foundered beneath the waves of sand.

At the foot of each pole there were indeed boats, laid upside down and covered with cowhide. The bodies inside the boats were still wearing the clothes they had been buried in. They had felt caps with feathers tucked in the brim, uncannily resembling Tyrolean mountain hats. They wore large woolen capes with tassels and leather boots. A Bronze Age salesclerk from Victoria’s Secret seems to have supplied the clothes beneath — barely adequate woolen loin cloths for the men, and skirts made of string strands for the women.

Within each boat coffin were grave goods, including beautifully woven grass baskets, skillfully carved masks and bundles of ephedra, an herb that may have been used in rituals or as a medicine.

In the women’s coffins, the Chinese archaeologists encountered one or more life-size wooden phalluses laid on the body or by its side. Looking again at the shaping of the 13-foot poles that rise from the prow of each woman’s boat, the archaeologists concluded that the poles were in fact gigantic phallic symbols. Arthur Wolf, an anthropologist at Stanford University and an expert on fertility in East Asia, said that the poles perhaps mark social status, a common theme of tombs and grave goods.

Dr. Mair said the Chinese archaeologists’ interpretation of the poles as phallic symbols was “a believable analysis.” The buried people’s evident veneration of procreation could mean they were interested in both the pleasure of sex and its utility, given that it is difficult to separate the two. But they seem to have had particular respect for fertility, Dr. Mair said, because several women were buried in double-layered coffins with special grave goods.

The language spoken by the people of the Small River Cemetery is unknown, but Dr. Mair believes it could have been Tokharian, an ancient member of the Indo-European family of languages. Manuscripts written in Tokharian have been discovered in the Tarim Basin.

The Small River Cemetery people lived more than 2,000 years before the earliest evidence for Tokharian, but there is “a clear continuity of culture,” Dr. Mair said, in the form of people being buried with felt hats, a tradition that continued until the first few centuries A.D

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