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EGYPT, ISRAEL & The U.S. Understanding what happened. Includes full Peace Treaty and additional information

 
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EGYPT, ISRAEL & The U.S. Understanding what happened. Includes full Peace Treaty and additional information
Exchange of Letters between President Carter and Prime Minister Begin Regarding the Exchange of
Ambassadors between Egypt and Israel
[link to www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org]

# Joint Letter from President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter



March 26, 1979

The President The White House


Dear Mr. President,

This letter confirms that Israel and Egypt have agreed as follows:

The Governments of Israel and Egypt recall that they concluded at Camp David and signed at the White House on September 17, 1978, the annexed documents entitled "A Framework for Peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David" and "Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt."

For the purpose of achieving a comprehensive peace settlement in accordance with the above-mentioned Frameworks, Israel and Egypt will proceed with the implementation of those provisions relating to the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. They have agreed to start negotiations within a month after the exchange of the instruments of ratification of the Peace Treaty. In accordance with the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East," the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is invited to join the negotiations. The Delegations of Egypt and Jordan may include Palestinians as mutually agreed. The purpose of the negotiations shall be to agree, prior to the elections, on the modalities for establishing the elected self-governing authority (administrative council), define its powers and responsibilities and agree upon other related issues. In the event Jordan decides not to take part in the negotiations, the negotiations will be held by Israel and Egypt.

The two Governments agree to negotiate continuously and in good faith to conclude these negotiations at the earliest possible date. They also agree that the objective of the negotiations is the establishment of the self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza in order to provide full autonomy to the inhabitants.

Israel and Egypt set for themselves the goal of completing the negotiations within one year so that elections will be held as expeditiously as possible after agreement has been reached between the parties. The self-governing authority referred to in the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East" will be established and inaugurated within one month after it has been elected, at which time the transitional period of five years will begin. The Israel military government and its civilian administration will be withdrawn, to be replaced by the self-governing authority, as specified in the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East." A withdrawal of Israeli armed forces will then take place and there will be a redeployment of the remaining Israeli forces into specified security locations.

This letter also confirms our understanding that the United States Government will participate fully in all stages of negotiations.



Yours sincerely,

For the Government
of Israel
Menachem Begin

For the Government of the
Arab Republic of Egypt
Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat


# Letter from President Carter to Prime Minister Begin about the Deployment of a UN or an Alternate Multinational Force



March 26, 1979

His Excellency Menachem Begin,
Prime Minister of the State of Israel


Dear Mr. Prime Minister,

I wish to confirm to you that subject to United States Constitutional processes:

In the event of an actual or threatened violation of the Treaty of Peace between Israel and Egypt, the United States will, on request of one or both of the Parties, consult with the Parties with respect thereto and will take such other action as it may deem appropriate and helpful to achieve compliance with the Treaty.

The United States will conduct aerial monitoring as requested by the Parties pursuant to Annex I of the Treaty. The United States believes that the Treaty provision for permanent stationing of United Nations personnel in the designated limited force zone can and should be implemented by the United Nations Security Council. The United States will exert its utmost efforts to obtain the requisite action by the Security Council. If the Security Council fails to establish and maintain the arrangements called for in the Treaty, the President will be prepared to take those steps necessary to ensure the establishment and maintenance of an acceptable alternative multinational force.


Sincerely,
Jimmy Carter


# Exchange of Letters between President Carter and Prime Minister Begin Regarding the Exchange of Ambassadors between Egypt and Israel



March 26, 1979

His Excellency Menachem Begin
Prime Minister of the State of Israel


Dear Mr. Prime Minister,

I have received a letter from President Sadat that, within one month after Israel completes its withdrawal to the interim line in Sinai, as provided for in the Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel, Egypt win send a resident ambassador to Israel and will receive in Egypt a resident Israeli ambassador.

I would be grateful if you will confirm that this procedure will be agreeable to the Government of Israel.


Sincerely,
Jimmy Carter


March 26, 1979

The President,
The White House


Dear Mr. President,

I am pleased to be able to confirm that the Government of Israel is agreeable to the procedure set out in your letter of March 26, 1979, in which you state:

"I have received a letter from President Sadat that, within one month after Israel completes its withdrawal to the interim line in Sinai, as provided for in the Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel, Egypt will send a resident ambassador to Israel and will receive in Egypt a resident Israeli ambassador."



Sincerely,

Menachem Begin
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Re: EGYPT, ISRAEL & The U.S. Understanding what happened. Includes full Peace Treaty and additional information
The Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in full, without link. It's long...
Unable to provide link to this...

Sixteen months after
Sadat's visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was signed in
Washington. It contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex
dealing with the relation between the parties, agreed minutes
interpreting the main articles of the treaty, among them Article 6, the
withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements and
the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The latter issue was
contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat and Prime Minister
Begin to President Carter. In a separate Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement,
concluded on the same day, the US spelled out its commitments to Israel
in case the treaty is violated, the role of the UN and the future
supply of military and economic aid to Israel.

Text:
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the State of Israel;
PREAMBLE
Convinced
of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive
and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security
Council Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David," dated September 17, 1978;
Noting
that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to
constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also
between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared
to negotiate peace with it on this basis; Desiring
to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish a
peace in which every state in the area can live in security; Convinced
that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an
important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the area and
for the attainment of settlement of the Arab- Israeli conflict in all
its aspects; Inviting
the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process with
Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned
Framework; Desiring
as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between
themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the
principles of international law governing international relations in
times of peace; Agree
to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty,
in order to implement the "Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace
Treaty Between Egypt and Israel";
Article I


1. The state of war between the
Parties will be terminated and peace will be established between them
upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
2. Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from
the Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated
Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt
will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
3. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in
Annex I, the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in
accordance with Article III (3).



Article II
The
permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel in the recognized
international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory
of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the
issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this
boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of
the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.
Article III


1. The Parties will apply
between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and
the principles of international law governing relations among states in
times of peace. In particular:

1. They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence;
2. They recognize and will respect each other's right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries;
3. They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or
indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between
them by peaceful means.



2. Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of
belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not
committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its
control or by any other forces stationed on its territory , against the
population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party also
undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting
or participating in acts or threats of belligerency, hostility,
subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere, and
undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to
justice.
3. The Parties agree that the normal relationship established
between them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and
cultural relations, termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory
barriers to the free movement of people and goods, and will guarantee
the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process
by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to the
implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out in the
annexed protocol (Annex III).



Article IV


1. In order to provide maximum
security for both Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security
arrangements will be established including limited force zones in
Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations forces and
observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and
other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
2. The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations
personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to
request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these
personnel will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the
Security Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of
the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.
3. A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
4. The security arrangements provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2
of this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and
amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.



Article V


1. Ships of Israel, and cargoes
destined for or coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free
passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of
Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople
Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals, vessels
and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for or
coming from Israel, shall be accorded non- discriminatory treatment in
all matters connected with usage of the canal.
2. The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba
to be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and
non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will
respect each other's right to navigation and overflight for access to
either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.



Article VI


1. This Treaty does not affect
and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and
obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
2. The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their
obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of
any other party and independently of any instrument external to this
Treaty.
3. They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for
the application in their relations of the provisions of the
multilateral conventions to which they are parties, including the
submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the
United Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.
4. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
5. Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the
event of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the
present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations
under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.



Article VII


1. Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
2. Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.



Article VIII
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

Article IX


1. This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of ratification.
2. This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September, 1975.
3. All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.
4. The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of
the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions
of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.




Annex I
Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements

Article I
Concept of Withdrawal


1. Israel will complete
withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not
later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of
ratification of this Treaty.
2. To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the
implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military
measures and establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as "the Zones."
3. The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:

1. The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras
Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of
exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
2. The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international
boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty.



4. A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the
exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to
supervise and coordinate movements and schedules during the withdrawal,
and to adjust plans and timetables as necessary within the limits
established by paragraph 3, above. Details relating to the Joint
Commission are set out in Article IV of the attached Appendix. The
Joint Commission will be dissolved upon completion of final Israeli
withdrawal from the Sinai.



Article II
Determination of Final Lines and Zones


1. In order to provide maximum
security for both Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the
Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as
follows:

1. Zone A

1. Zone A is bounded on the east by line A (red line) and on the west
by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on
Map 1.
2. An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division
and its military installations, and field fortifications, will be in
this Zone.
3. The main elements of that Division will consist of:

1. Three mechanized infantry brigades.
2. One armed brigade.
3. Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces.
4. Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual
surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and
above.
5. Up to 230 tanks.
6. Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types.
7. Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel.




2. Zone B

1. Zone B is bounded by line B (green line) on the east and by line A (red line) on the west, as shown on Map 1.
2. Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light
weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the
civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the
four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand
personnel.
3. Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points
of the border patrol units may be established on the coast of this
Zone.
4. There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military installations for the four border battalions.



3. Zone C

1. Zone C is bounded by line B (green line) on the west and the
International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on
Map 1.
2. Only United Nations forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C.
3. The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this Zone.
4. The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this annex.
5. The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps
located within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will
establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:

1. In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of
the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary.
2. In the Sharm el Sheikh area.




4. Zone D

1. Zone D is bounded by line D (blue line) on the east and the international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1.
2. In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four
infantry battalions, their military installations, and field
fortifications, and United Nations observers.
3. The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks,
artillery and anti-aircraft missiles except individual surface-to-air
missiles.
4. The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions
will consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and
up to a total of four thousand personnel.




2. Access across the international boundary shall only be
permitted through entry check points designated by each Party and under
its control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and
regulations of each country.
3. Only those field fortifications, military installations,
forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in
the Zones.



Article III
Aerial Military Regime


1. Flights of combat aircraft
and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only
over Zones A and D, respectively.
2. Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
3. Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and
land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone
B. The Egyptian border unit.,., may be equipped with unarmed
helicopters to perform their functions in Zone B.
4. The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
5. Only civilian airfields maybe built in the Zones.
6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall
be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters.



Article IV
Naval Regime


1. Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
2. Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed
and operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border
units in performing their functions in this Zone.
3. Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly
armed, shall perform normal police functions within the territorial
waters of Zone C.
4. Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from
the right of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
5. Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the Zones.
6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
naval activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed
in the Zones and in their territorial waters.



Article V
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only in Zones A and D respectively.

Article VI
United Nations Operations


1. The Parties will request the
United Nations to provide forces and observers to supervise the
implementation of this Annex and employ their best efforts to prevent
any violation of its terms.
2. With respect to these United Nations forces and observers, as
appropriate, the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:

1. Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation
posts along the international boundary and line B, and within Zone C.
2. Periodic verification of the implementation of the
provisions of this Annex will be carried out not less than twice a
month unless otherwise agreed by the Parties.
3. Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of a request from either Party.
4. Ensuring the freedom of navigation through the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.



3. The arrangements described in this article for each zone will
be implemented in ones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in
Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
4. United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison officers of the respective Party.
5. The United Nations Force and observers will report their findings to both Parties.
6. The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones
will enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the
performance of their tasks.
7. The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to authorize the crossing of the international boundary.
8. The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United
Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They "ill be drawn from
nations other than those which are permanent members of the United
Nations Security Council.
9. The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those
command arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation
of its responsibilities.




Article VII
Liaison System


1. Upon dissolution of the Joint
Commission, a liaison system between the Parties will be established.
This liaison system is intended to provide an effective method to
assess progress in the implementation of obligations under the present
Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the course of
implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to the higher
military authorities of the two countries respectively for
consideration. It is also intended to prevent situations resulting from
errors or misinterpretation on the part of either Party.
2. An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of
El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city
of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed by an officer of the
respective country, and assisted by a number of officers.
3. A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up
and also direct telephone lines with the United Nations command will be
maintained by both offices.



Article VIII
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party
undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials erected in
the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those erected by
Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.
Article IX
Interim Arrangements
The
withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the interim
withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties and the
United Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed by the
attached Appendix and Map 2.

Appendix to Annex I
Organization of Movements in the Sinai

Article I
Principles of Withdrawal


1. The withdrawal of Israeli
armed forces and civilians from the Sinai will be accomplished in two
phases as described in Article I of Annex I. The description and timing
of the withdrawal are included in this Appendix. The Joint Commission
will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator of the United Nations
forces in the Middle East the details of these phases not later than
one month before the initiation of each phase of withdrawal.
2. Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of military movements.

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, paragraph 2, of this
Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the current
J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of
September 1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to
the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under
that Agreement will remain in effect, except those military
arrangements otherwise provided for in this Appendix.
2. As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations forces will
immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim and
temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for the
purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations forces'
deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these
areas.
3. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces
have evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed
forces shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of
this Appendix.
4. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces
have evacuated any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units
shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this
Appendix, and will function in accordance with the provisions of
Article II of Annex I.
5. Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately
after the United Nations forces to perform normal police functions.
6. Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix.
7. Except those movements mentioned above, deployments of
Egyptian armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be
offered in the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed
their withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.



Article II
Subphases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line


1. The withdrawal to the interim
withdrawal line will be accomplished in subphases as described in this
Article and as shown on Map 3. Each subphase will be completed within
the indicated number of months from the date of the exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty:

1. First subphase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and
its airfield, shown as Area I on Map 3.
2. Second subphase: within three months, Israeli armed forces
will withdraw from the area between line M of the 1975 Agreement and
line A, shown as Area II on Map 3.
3. Third subphase: within five months, Israeli armed forces
will withdraw from the area east and south of Area II, shown as Area
III on Map 3.
4. Fourth subphase: within seven months, Israeli armed forces
will withdraw from the area of El Tor- Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV
on Map 3.
5. Fifth subphase: Within nine months, Israeli armed forces
will withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim withdrawal
line, including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east of the
Giddi and Mitla passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing
Israeli withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.



2. Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas evacuated by Israeli armed forces as follows:

1. Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in
accordance with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone
A lying within Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal.
Thereafter, Egyptian armed forces as described Article II of Annex I
will be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone.
2. The Egyptian naval activity in accordance with Article IV of
Annex I will commence along the coasts of areas I, III and IV, upon
completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases, respectively.
3. Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of
Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be
deployed in Area I. A second battalion will deployed in Area II upon
completion of the second subphase. A third battalion will deployed in
Area Ill upon completion of the third subphase. The second and third
battalions mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the
subsequently evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.



3. United Nations forces in Buffer Zone I of the 1976 Agreement
will redeploy enable the deployment of Egyptian forces described above
upon the completion of the subphase, but will otherwise continue to
function in accordance with the provisions of that Agreement in the
remainder of that zone until the completion of interim withdrawal, as
indicated in Article I of this Appendix.
4. Israeli convoys may use the roads south and east of the main
road junction east of El Arish to evacuate Israeli forces up to the
completion of interim withdrawal. These convoys will proceed in
daylight upon four hours notice to the Egyptian liaison group and
United Nations forces, will be escorted by United Nations forces, and
will be in accordance with schedules coordinated by the Joint
Commission. An Egyptian liaison officer will accompany convoys to
assure uninterrupted movement. The Joint Commission may approve other
arrangements for convoys.



Article III
United Nations Forces


1. The Parties shall request
that United Nations forces be deployed as necessary to perform the
functions described in the Appendix up to the time of completion of
final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties agree to the
redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
2. United Nations forces will supervise the implementation of
this Appendix and will employ their best efforts to prevent any
violation of its terms.
3. When United Nations forces deploy in accordance with the
provisions of Article and II of this Appendix, they will perform the
functions of verification in limited force zones in accordance with
Article VI of Annex I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance
patrols, and observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described
in Article II above. Other functions of the United Nations forces which
concern the interim buffer zone are described in Article V of this
Appendix.



Article IV
Joint Commission and Liaison


1. The Joint Commission referred
to in Article IV of this Treaty will function from the date of exchange
of instruments of ratification of this Treaty up to the date of
completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
2. The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of
each Party headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a
representative of the United Nations when discussing subjects
concerning the United Nations, or when either Party requests United
Nations presence. Decisions of the Joint Commission will be reached by
agreement of Egypt and Israel.
3. The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the
arrangements described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and
by agreement of both Parties, it will:

1. coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and supervise their implementation;
2. address and seek to resolve any problem arising out of the
implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any violations
reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and refer to the
Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems;
3. assist the United Nations Force and Observers in the
execution of their mandates, and deal with the timetables of the
periodic verification when referred to it by the Parties as provided
for in Annex I and this Appendix;
4. organize the demarcation of the international boundary and all lines and zones described in Annex I and this Appendix;
5. supervise the handing over of the main installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt;
6. agree on necessary arrangements for finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers;
7. organize the setting up and operation of entry check points
along the El Arish-Ras Mohammed line in accordance with the provisions
of Article 4 of Annex III;
8. conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison
teams consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian
representative, provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will
conduct activities as directed by the Joint Commission;
9. provide liaison and coordination to the United Nations
command implementing provisions of the Treaty, and, through the joint
liaison teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation with the
United Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations
Observers monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed;
10. discuss any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place before it.



4. Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held at least once a
month. In the event that either Party of the Command of the United
Nations Force requests a specific meeting, it will be convened within
24 hours.
5. The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer zone until the
completion of the interim withdrawal and in El Arish and Beer-Sheba
alternately afterwards. The first meeting will be held not later than
two weeks after the entry into force of this Treaty.



Article V
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities


1. An interim buffer zone, by
which the United Nations Force will effect a separation of Egyptian and
Israeli elements, will be established west of and adjacent to the
interim withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after implementation of
Israeli withdrawal and deployment behind the interim withdrawal line.
Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will perform normal
police functions within this zone.
2. The United Nations Force will operate check points,
reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer
zone in order to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
3. In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties
and to be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will
operate military technical installations at four specific locations
shown on Map 2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940),
T2 (map central coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate
5933-1527), and T4 (map central coordinate 61130979) under the
following principles:

1. The technical installations shall be manned by technical and
administrative personnel equipped with small arms required for their
protection (revolvers, rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns,
hand grenades, and ammunition), as follows:

* T1 - up to 150 personnel
* T2 and T3 - up to 350 personnel
* T4 - up to 200 personnel



4. Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except officers who may carry personal weapons.
5. Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter
and conduct inspections within the perimeters of technical
installations in the buffer zone. The third party will conduct
inspections in a random manner at least once a month. The inspections
will verify the nature of the operation of the installations and the
weapons and personnel therein. The third party will immediately report
to the Parties any divergence from an installation's visual and
electronic surveillance or communications role.
6. Supply of the installations, visits for technical and
administrative purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment
situated in the sites, may occur uninterruptedly from the United
Nations check points to the perimeter of the technical installations,
after checking and being escorted by only the United Nations forces.
7. Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical
installations items required for the proper functioning of the
installations and personnel.
8. As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:

1. Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance
equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile
engineering equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All
vehicles shall be unarmed.
2. Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads,
water lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of
the three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this
maintenance may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles
and by up to twelve unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment,
including heavy engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may
be performed three times a week, except for special problems, and only
after giving the United Nations four hours notice. The teams will be
escorted by the United Nations.



9. Movement to and from the technical installations will take
place only during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the
technical installations shall be as follows:

1. T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between
Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the
Gebel Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2.
2. T2 and T3: through a United Nations checkpoint and via the
road constructed across the buffer zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on
Map 2.
3. T2, T3, and T4: via helicopters flying within a corridor at
the times, and according to a flight profile, agreed to by the Joint
Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the United Nations Force
at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations.



10. Israel will inform the United Nations Force at least one hour
in advance of each intended movement to and from the installations.
11. Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and
summon medical experts and medical teams at any time after giving
immediate notice to the United Nations Force.




# The details of the above principles and all other matters in
this Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by
the Joint Commission.
# These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli
forces withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed
by the parties.



Article VI
Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
Disposition
of installations and military barriers will be determined by the
Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:


1. Up to three weeks before
Israeli withdrawal from any area, the Joint Commission will arrange for
Israeli and Egyptian liaison and technical teams to conduct a joint
inspection of all appropriate installations to agree upon condition of
structures and articles which will be transferred to Egyptian control
and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will declare, at that time,
its plans for disposition of installations and articles within the
installations.
2. Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed
infrastructures, utilities, and installations intact, inter alia,
airfields, roads, pumping stations, and ports. Israel will present to
Egypt the information necessary for the maintenance and operation of
the facilities. Egyptian technical teams will be permitted to observe
and familiarize themselves with the operation of these facilities for a
period of up to two weeks prior to transfer.
3. When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El
Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of those
installations and ancillary equipment in accordance with an orderly
transfer process arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt
undertakes to continue to make available at all water supply points the
normal quantity of currently available water up to the time Israel
withdraws behind the international boundary, unless otherwise agreed in
the Joint Commission.
4. Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all
military barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and
adjacent waters from which it withdraws, according to the following
concept:

1. Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near populations, roads and major installations and utilities.
2. For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or
destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed
maps to Egypt and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not
later than 15 days before entry of United Nations forces into the
affected areas.
3. Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations
forces enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance with
Egyptian plans to be submitted prior to implementation.



Article VII
Surveillance Activities


1. Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be carried out as follows:

1. Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne
surveillance flights in accordance with previous agreements until the
completion of final Israeli withdrawal.
2. Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces Zones to
monitor the limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine that
Israeli armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article
II of Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that
these forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection
flights may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United
Nations.
3. Only the main elements in the military organizations of each
Party, as described in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.



2. Both Parties request the United States operated Sinai Field
Mission to continue its operations in accordance with previous
agreements until completion of the Israeli withdrawal from the area
east of the Giddi and Mitla Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be
terminated.



Article VIII
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will
resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated parts of the
Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article I of this
Treaty.
ANNEX II
Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary


ANNEX III
Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties

Article 1
Diplomatic and Consular Relations
The Parties
agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange
ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Article 2
Economic and Trade Relations


1. The Parties agree to remove
all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations and to
terminate economic boycotts of each other upon completion of the
interim withdrawal.
2. As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the
completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter
negotiations with a view to concluding an agreement on trade and
commerce for the purpose of promoting beneficial economic relations.



Article 3
Cultural Relations


1. The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following completion of the interim withdrawal.
2. They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all
fields, and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months
after completion of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations
with a view to concluding a cultural agreement for this purpose.



Article 4
Freedom of Movement


1. Upon completion of the
interim withdrawal, each Party will permit the free movement of the
nationals and vehicles of the other into and within its territory
according to the general rules applicable to nationals and vehicles of
other states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions on
the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to the
territory of the other.
2. Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical significance will be provided on a non- discriminatory basis.



Article 5
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations


1. The Parties recognize a
mutuality of interest in good neighbourly relations and agree to
consider means to promote such relations.
2. The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and
development in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the
other may wish to make to this end.
3. The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and
tolerance and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda
against each other.



Article 6
Transportation and Telecommunications


1. The Parties recognize as
applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations
provided for by the aviation agreements to which they are both party,
particularly by the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944
("The Chicago Convention") and the International Air Services Transit
Agreement, 1944.
2. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of
national emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago
Convention will not be applied to the other party on a discriminatory
basis.
3. Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near
El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for civilian
purposes only, including possible commercial use by all nations.
4. As soon as possible and not later than six months after the
completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into
negotiations for the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
5. The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways
between their countries and will consider further road and rail links.
The Parties further agree that a highway will be constructed and
maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed
free and peaceful passage of persons, vehicles and goods between Egypt
and Jordan, without prejudice to their sovereignty over that part of
the highway which falls within their respective territory.
6. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal,
telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications and
television relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be
established between the two Parties in accordance with all relevant
international conventions and regulations.
7. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall
grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other,
as well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other.
Such access will be granted on the same conditions generally applicable
to vessels and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of
Peace will be implemented upon the exchange of instruments of
ratification of the aforementioned treaty.



Article 7
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties
affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and
freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Article 8
Territorial Seas
Without
prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace each
Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other Party to
innocent passage through its territorial sea in accordance with the
rules of international law.

AGREED MINUTES

Article I
Egypt's
resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai provided
for in paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to each area
upon Israel's withdrawal from the area. Article IV
It is agreed
between the parties that the review provided for in Article IV (4) will
be undertaken when requested by either party, commencing within three
months of such a request, but that any amendment can be made only by
mutual agreement of both parties. Article V
The second
sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed as limiting
the first sentence of that paragraph. The foregoing is not to be
construed as contravening the second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article
V, which reads as follows: "The Parties will respect each other's right
to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the
Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba." Article VI (2)
The
provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction to the
provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp
David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the
provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as follows:
"The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under
this Treaty, without regard to action of any other Party and
independently of any instrument external to this Treaty." Article VI (5)
It is agreed
by the Parties that there is no assertion that this Treaty prevails
over other Treaties or agreements or that other Treaties or agreements
prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not to be construed as
contravening the provisions of Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which
reads as follows: "Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations
Charter, in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the
Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations,
the obligation under this Treaty will be binding and implemented." Annex I
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
"The Parties
shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations forces and
observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than
those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security
Council." The Parties have agreed as follows:
"With
respect to the provisions of paragraph 8, Article VI, of Annex 1, if no
agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept or support a
U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United Nations force
and observers." Annex III
The Treaty
of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing normal economic
relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith, it is agreed
that such relations will include normal commercial sales of oil by
Egypt to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to make bids
for Egyptian-origin oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil
consumption, and Egypt and its oil concessionaires will entertain bids
made by Israel, on the same basis and terms as apply to other bidders
for such oil.

For the Government
of Israel
For the Government of the
Arab Republic of Egypt

Witnessed by:
Jimmy Carter
President of the United States of America
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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Posted in its entirety the;
Memorandum of Agreement between the Governments of the United
States of America and the State of Israel


(March 26, 1979)





Recognizing the significance of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace
between Israel and Egypt and considering the importance of full
implementation of the Treaty of Peace to Israel's security interests and
the contribution of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace to the security
and development of Israel as well as its significance to peace and
stability in the region and to the maintenance of international peace and
security; and
Recognizing that the withdrawal from Sinai imposes additional heavy
security, military and economic burdens on Israel;
The Governments of the United States and the State of Israel, subject to
their constitutional processes and applicable law, confirm as follows:



1. In the light of the role of the United States in achieving the
Treaty of Peace and the parties' desire that the United States continue
its supportive efforts, the United States will take appropriate measures
to promote full observance of the Treaty of peace.
2. Should it be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the United States
that there has been a violation or threat of violation of the Treaty of
Peace, enhance friendly and peaceful relations between the parties and
promote peace in the region, and will take such remedial measures as it
deems appropriate, which may include diplomatic, economic and military
measures as described below.
3. The United States will provide support it deems appropriate for proper
actions taken by Israel in response to such demonstrated violations of the
Treaty of Peace. In particular, if a violation of the Treaty of Peace is
deemed to threaten the security of Israel, including, inter alia, a
blockade of Israel's use of international waterways, a violation of the
provisions of the Treaty of Peace concerning limitation of forces or an
armed attack against Israel, the United States will be prepared to
consider, on an urgent basis, such measures as the strengthening of the
United States presence in the area, the providing of emergency supplies to
Israel, and the exercise of maritime rights in order to put an end to the
violation.
4. The United States will support the parties' rights to navigation and
overflight for access to either country through and over the Strait of
Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba pursuant to the Treaty of Peace.
5. The United States will oppose and, if necessary, vote against any
action or resolution in the United Nations which in its judgments
adversely affects the Treaty of Peace.
6. Subject to Congressional authorization and appropriation, the United
States will endeavor to take into account and will endeavor to be
responsive to military and economic assistance requirements of Israel.
7. The United States will continue to impose restrictions on weapons
supplied by it to any country which prohibit their unauthorized transfer
to any third party. The United States will not supply or authorize
transfer of such weapons for use in an armed attack against Israel, and
will take steps to prevent such unauthorized transfer.
8. Existing agreements and assurances between the United States and
Israel are not terminated or altered by the conclusion of the Treaty of
Peace, except for those contained in Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15 and
16 of Memorandum of Agreement between the Government of Israel and the
Government of the United States (United States-Israeli Assurances) of
September 1, 1975.
9. This Memorandum of Agreement sets forth the full understandings of the
United States and Israel with regard to the subject matters covered
between them hereby, and shall be implemented in accordance with its
terms.

[link to www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org]
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman also spoke of the occurrences in Egypt, during a ministry meeting called to discuss the matter. "Israel will not get involved in Egypt's internal affairs, and our only concern is that regional stability is maintained and the peace treaty honored," he said.

/snip/

A spokesman for the Armed Forces Supreme Council underlined the military's "commitment to all Egypt's international treaties."


Israel has been deeply concerned that Egypt's turmoil could threaten the 1979 peace accord signed between the two countries. The United States, Egypt's top ally, is also eager to ensure the accord remains in place. The military strongly supports the accord, not in small part because it guarantees US aid for the armed forces, currently running at $1.3 billion a year.


Anti-Israeli feeling is strong in Egypt, and many of the hundreds of thousands of protesters expressed anger at Mubarak's close cooperation with Israel on a range of issues. Still, few seriously call for the abrogation of the treaty, realizing the international impact.

/snip/

The military also called on the "current government and provincial governors to continue their activities until a new government is formed," el-Fangari said.

[link to www.ynetnews.com]
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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[link to www.ynetnews.com]

The White House says it is important that the next government of Egypt recognize existing accords with Israel.

Spokesman Robert Gibbs says the US partnership with Egypt has
brought stability to the Middle East and, in particular, peace between
Egypt and Israel. The two countries signed a peace treaty in 1979. (AP)
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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My italics.
This from the Washington post...


"Egyptian military officers are in the upper echelon of society," said one former U.S. general with extensive experience in the Middle East and Egypt who spoke on the condition of anonymity to preserve his relationships in the region. "The biggest question for the Egyptian military is whether or not there will be a whole-scale change in the Egyptian elite, because the senior military officers are so much a part of that elite. . . . They may be indifferent on whether Mubarak stays or leaves."

But current and former U.S. officials described the Egyptian General Staff as fairly unified in its support of Mubarak. "If you are a general in the Egyptian army, you are beholden to Mubarak. You were handpicked by Mubarak," said a former U.S. military official who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he still consults with the Egyptian armed forces. "What you have is bureaucrats who were promoted because they were good managers and were loyal to Mubarak and Tantawi."

[link to www.washingtonpost.com]

A must read and is a very poignant reminder.

Within the follow link is an ambiguous statement by the council issued Friday.


The third included a promise not to detain "the honorable sons of the nation who rejected corruption and demanded reform," and stressed the importance of "resuming work at government's services, the return of normal life in order to preserve the interests and the achievements of our great people."

Keep in mind "normal life" for the Egyptian people consisted of repression, kidnapping, torture and murder.
[link to au.ibtimes.com]

This link straight from the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Sixteen months after Sadat's visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was signed in Washington. It contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex dealing with the relation between the parties, agreed minutes interpreting the main articles of the treaty, among them Article 6, the withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements and the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The latter issue was contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter.

In a separate Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement, concluded on the same day, the US spelled out its commitments to Israel in case the treaty is violated, the role of the UN and the future supply of military and economic aid to Israel.
[link to www.mfa.gov.il] Process/Guide to the Peace Process/Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
(LINK NOW NOT AVAILABLE)

Within the above link is the link to the US-Israel Memorandum of Agreement contain this broad-sweeping clause;
Should it be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the United States that there has been a violation or threat of violation of the Treaty of Peace, enhance friendly and peaceful relations between the parties and promote peace in the region, and will take such remedial measures as it deems appropriate, which may include diplomatic, economic and military measures as described below.
[link to www.mfa.gov.il] Process/Guide to the Peace Process/US-Israel Memorandum of Agreement
(LINK NOW NOT AVAILABLE)

If there is a split in the US-Israel led Egyptian regimes puppet military, remedy exist for Israel to invoke this clause, allowing them to make demand of the US to honour same.

IMO, if the Egyptian people themselves are deemed to constitute a threat to the security of the Israeli nation, then remedy exists for Israel to invoke the relevant clause and demand remedy through Egypt's own military.

I am sure everyone is aware that under these treaites, the US has been supplying weapons to Egypt. In fact, Egypt has the tenth largest standing army in the world, despite rampart poverty amongst its people.


Cairo may have no apparent enemies, but the impoverished Egyptian state sinks massive resources into a military build up. According to the Congressional Research Service, it purchased $6.5 billion worth of foreign weapons in the years 2001-04, more than any other state in the Middle East. In contrast, the Israeli government bought only $4.4 billion worth during that period and the Saudi one $3.8 billion.
[link to www.danielpipes.org]

Egyptian people, be proud and celebrate. But please be aware, the regime is a US funded proxy of Israel.
The Peace Treaty was signed to promote the peace of the Israeli nation, at the expense of oppression, kidnapping, torture and murder of the Egyptian people. The peace treaty allows for inhumane acts to be undertaken on suspected anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli and anti Jewish factions that are discovered or suspected of operating upon Egyptian soil.
Of course, the operations undertaken by the regime must be comprehensive, and if a few innocents get mistakenly caught up in it, then it is easily justified by the statement that....


regional stability is maintained and the peace treaty honored


This is however in direct contravention to
Annex III
Article 7
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties
affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and
freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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I now present a list of key members of the Supreme Council for all to examine.

-Omar Suleiman, 74,

-Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, 75, who became the minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed forces in 1991, according to the network.

-On the Egypt Armed Forces website, Tantawi is listed second on the list of commanders behind the "Supreme Commander," Hosni Mubarak.

- Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Anan, 63, who holds the title of Armed Forces Chief of Staff, according to the network. Anan is listed third on the armed forces website, behind Tantawi.

- Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed, 58, the air force chief, is also on the council, Al Jazeera reported.

- Lt. Gen. Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeein, the commander of air defense

- Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish, chief of the navy.

I hold these names up, so you can all examine their past and determine where their loyalties stand.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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02/12/2011 09:42 PM
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I urge you to consider the full ramifications of Article III(2)

Article III

1.

The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law governing relations among states in times of peace. In particular:


1.

They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence;
2.

They recognize and will respect each other's right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries;
3.

They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.


2.

Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its control or by any other forces stationed on its territory , against the population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party also undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting or participating in acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere, and undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice.



3.

The Parties agree that the normal relationship established between them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and cultural relations, termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory barriers to the free movement of people and goods, and will guarantee the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to the implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out in the annexed protocol (Annex III).
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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02/12/2011 09:47 PM
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My assessment;
The protesting against Mabarak and the regime was a human rights issue undertaken by the youth of Egypt, acting under the assumption of free and peaceful people.
What must now occur is the Supreme Council must be seen to abide by those demands, and are beholden to do so in a manner that does not threaten or jeopardise the peace treaty.
However, should in the course of those demands being met-including any relevant changes within the structure of the governance of Egypt, whether civil or military-the peace treaty is breached in a way that Israel considers to be an immediate and on-going threat to their national security, Israel then has remedy to take whatever steps it deems necessary to ensure the integrity of the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, up to and including military action with the full backing of the US under the Memorandum of Agreement between the Governments of the United States of America and the State of Israel.
Anonymous Coward (OP)
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Bumping this for those that aren't blinded by walls of text....
blink
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02/13/2011 05:46 AM
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OP here. Seriously, you guys aren't able to hold a complex arrangement of facts tempered with personal observation are you? Any one here brave enough to contribute a thought?

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