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Message Subject New Chemtrail Poll: Do you believe in Chemtrails?
Poster Handle George B
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Ninth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2011)

[link to www.aviationsystemsdivision.arc.nasa.gov]

Design of Aircraft Trajectories based on
Trade-offs between Emission Sources

Abstract Aviation operations affect the climate in several
ways. Carbon dioxide, water vapor and other greenhouse
gasses are unavoidable by-product of the combustion of
fossil fuel. There are indications that persistent contrails
can lead to adverse climate change
, although the complete
effect on climate forcing is still uncertain. A flight
trajectory optimization algorithm with fuel and contrails
models, which develops alternative flight paths, provides
policy makers the necessary data to make trade-offs
between persistent contrails mitigation and aircraft fuel
consumption. This study develops an algorithm that
calculates wind-optimal trajectories for cruising aircraft
while reducing the amount of time spent in regions of
airspace prone to persistent contrails formation. The
optimal trajectories are developed by solving a non-linear
optimal control problem with path constraints. The
regions of airspace favorable to persistent contrails
formation are modeled as penalty areas that aircraft
should avoid. The trade-off between persistent contrails
formation and additional fuel consumption is investigated
for 12 city-pairs in the continental United States. The
avoidance of contrails using only horizontal maneuvers
results in a small reduction of contrails with increasing
fuel consumption. When both horizontal maneuvers and
altitude are optimized, a 2% increase in total fuel
consumption can reduce the total travel times through
contrail regions by more than 70%. Allowing further
increase in fuel consumption does not seem to result in
proportionate reduction in contrail travel times. This
trend is maintained even in the presence of uncertainties
in the contrail formation regions such as uncertainties in
relative humidity values computed by weather forecast
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