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Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government

 
Kathryn Albrecht
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Slovenia
10/31/2011 05:08 PM
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Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Yugoslavia was once a regional industrial power and economic succes. Two decades before 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent and life expectancy was 72 years.

the Reagan administration targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD 133), "Us policy towards Yugoslavia". A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 64 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982. The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a "quiet revolution" to overthrow Communist governments and parties", while reintegrating the countries of astern Europe into a market oriented economy.

[link to www.globaltenders.com]


Whatever Happened to Yugoslavia?

The International Monetary Fund became the chief weapon used to destroy Balkan unity. Increased ethnic friction, then, can be seen as only a secondary cause of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia. As British economist and political analyst Sean Gervasi has stated, "Foreign intervention was designed to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried."

IMF austerity measures were imposed in autumn 1989. The currency was further devalued, wages frozen, and state industries deemed "unprofitable under structural adjustment" (worker-owned companies) were closed. Unemployment immediately rose 20%. The federal government in Belgrade regularly transferred treasury payments to the republics and autonomous regions. Those payments were now stopped, the funds mandated by the IMF to service foreign debt. As the Berlin Wall was falling, wages in Yugoslavia fell 41%.

At this juncture, Prime Minister Ante Markovic visited Washington and reported worriedly that ethnic tensions were rising in the republics (New York Times, 10/14/89). George Bush convinced Markovic of the wisdom of more debt restructuring. An emergency foreign aid package was negotiated when Markovic promised to return home and liberalize constitutional controls on foreign investments. Markovic's ensuing legislation forced over one thousand by-then insolvent enterprises into bankruptcy. These companies could subsequently be purchased 'for a song' by Western investors.

Next, 650,000 Yugoslav workers struck. Although travail was increasing within the republics due to the precipitous decline, workers united in solidarity across all ethnic lines. It was in this atmosphere that Communist party leader Slobodan Milosevic came to power in the fall 1990 elections, railing against the dire conditions. Milosevic's gravest error was in not building upon worker solidarity at this juncture by appealing for the unity of all Yugoslavians. He lacked either the decency or the diplomacy to address each republic's complaints as the federation groaned and strained under economic duress. At a time when nationalist/separatist tendencies were flaring up in the republics, Milosevic fanned the flames by calling only for a united Serbia.


THE BREAKING POINT
Meanwhile, the economy plummeted. Eastern European Economics reported industrial production declined to a negative 10% growth rate and the GDP to a negative 7.5%. Then Milosevic took a bold step, one which would irrevocably condemn him in the eyes of Western monetary powers: he halted the IMF and U.S.-mandated reforms. He brought "structural adjustment" to a standstill.
Revenge was swift. One month later, in early November 1990, the U.S. Congress passed Foreign Operations Appropriations Law 101-513. Annual "foreign operations" appropriations facilitate U.S. corporate control of many of the world's economies by granting -- or withholding -- major funding to international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian, African and Inter-American Development Banks. Section 599a of this Act cut off all aid, credit, and loans to Yugoslavia and demanded immediate, separate elections in each of the country's six republics. The U.S. State Department would alone determine the validity of each election and resume aid to individual regions if the victors were deemed "democratic."

Hence, in areas of Yugoslavia already severely destabilized by a dislocated economy, with strains of micro-nationalism fracturing the political and social landscape, a major influx of U.S. dollars went directly to those right-wing secessionist parties who won these cobbled-up elections. This was in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The effect of Section 599a was as if deftly placed wedges had been inserted by the U.S. exactly along fissures of nationalism and ethnic identity and a sledge brought down on each. The economy entirely collapsed, recriminations broke out on all sides and, with separatist tendencies ignited by interventionism, the CIA in The New York Times of November 28, predicted civil war in Yugoslavia.

[link to www.zianet.com]





Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the President's Meeting With Prime Minister Ante Markovic of Yugoslavia
October 13, 1989

The President met with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic in the Oval Office for approximately a half hour. The President reaffirmed his strong support for Yugoslav independence, unity, and sovereignty. He welcomed Prime Minister Markovic's commitment to market-oriented economic reform and to building democratic pluralism throughout Yugoslavia

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

The President reiterated U.S. support for the European Community's ongoing efforts to help resolve the Yugoslav crisis and urged President Mesic to continue cooperating with the United States, the EC, and others in the interest of a peaceful transition to a new Yugoslavia.

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

Records on CIA National Intelligence Estimate “Yugoslavia Transformed”

The materials in FOIA 2010-0605-F are a selective, not necessarily all inclusive, body of documents responsive to the topic of the FOIA. Researchers should consult the archivist about related materials.
FOIA 2010-0605-F contains materials related to the CIA National Intelligence Estimate entitled “Yugoslavia Transformed.” Materials include declassified National Security Agency cover sheets which route closed correspondence related to Yugoslavia.
It should be noted that a significant majority of the documents listed here are security classified and have been closed under the restrictions of the Freedom of Information Act.

[link to bushlibrary.tamu.edu]
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:11 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
bump
kemicar

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10/31/2011 05:28 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
I hear a cry for Yugoslavia from Slovenia...probably something is wrong with Europe...

ouncsam
Tuff~Kooky

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10/31/2011 05:29 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
verysad
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:36 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Yugoslavia were a possible player. Nationalism there downfall
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:37 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Yeah well, you know how America hates free medicare, stupid of your country to have!
5a
mr...bojangles

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10/31/2011 05:41 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
there is no america....


the world is controlled by a triangle...

international banks, MIC and the vatican....

communism and capitalism are two sides of the same coin....

both are controlled by the elite....
Beyond one's own mind there is no dazzling light to come shining in from outside to wake one up. If one recognizes one's own intrinsic State as pure from the beginning and only temporarily obscured by impurities, and if one maintains the presence of this recognition without becoming distracted, then all the impurities dissolve. This is the essence of the Path-namkhai norbu.

Why is there a legend about the descent of Christ into hell? The Teacher addressed the lower strata of the astral world, saying: �Why, by cherishing earthly thoughts, bind oneself eternally to Earth?� And many revolted in spirit and rose higher.
Thread: I shot video of the earth from my spacecraft, enjoy!
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:42 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Yugoslavia was once a regional industrial power and economic succes. Two decades before 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent and life expectancy was 72 years.

the Reagan administration targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD 133), "Us policy towards Yugoslavia". A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 64 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982. The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a "quiet revolution" to overthrow Communist governments and parties", while reintegrating the countries of astern Europe into a market oriented economy.

[link to www.globaltenders.com]


Whatever Happened to Yugoslavia?

The International Monetary Fund became the chief weapon used to destroy Balkan unity. Increased ethnic friction, then, can be seen as only a secondary cause of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia. As British economist and political analyst Sean Gervasi has stated, "Foreign intervention was designed to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried."

IMF austerity measures were imposed in autumn 1989. The currency was further devalued, wages frozen, and state industries deemed "unprofitable under structural adjustment" (worker-owned companies) were closed. Unemployment immediately rose 20%. The federal government in Belgrade regularly transferred treasury payments to the republics and autonomous regions. Those payments were now stopped, the funds mandated by the IMF to service foreign debt. As the Berlin Wall was falling, wages in Yugoslavia fell 41%.

At this juncture, Prime Minister Ante Markovic visited Washington and reported worriedly that ethnic tensions were rising in the republics (New York Times, 10/14/89). George Bush convinced Markovic of the wisdom of more debt restructuring. An emergency foreign aid package was negotiated when Markovic promised to return home and liberalize constitutional controls on foreign investments. Markovic's ensuing legislation forced over one thousand by-then insolvent enterprises into bankruptcy. These companies could subsequently be purchased 'for a song' by Western investors.

Next, 650,000 Yugoslav workers struck. Although travail was increasing within the republics due to the precipitous decline, workers united in solidarity across all ethnic lines. It was in this atmosphere that Communist party leader Slobodan Milosevic came to power in the fall 1990 elections, railing against the dire conditions. Milosevic's gravest error was in not building upon worker solidarity at this juncture by appealing for the unity of all Yugoslavians. He lacked either the decency or the diplomacy to address each republic's complaints as the federation groaned and strained under economic duress. At a time when nationalist/separatist tendencies were flaring up in the republics, Milosevic fanned the flames by calling only for a united Serbia.


THE BREAKING POINT
Meanwhile, the economy plummeted. Eastern European Economics reported industrial production declined to a negative 10% growth rate and the GDP to a negative 7.5%. Then Milosevic took a bold step, one which would irrevocably condemn him in the eyes of Western monetary powers: he halted the IMF and U.S.-mandated reforms. He brought "structural adjustment" to a standstill.
Revenge was swift. One month later, in early November 1990, the U.S. Congress passed Foreign Operations Appropriations Law 101-513. Annual "foreign operations" appropriations facilitate U.S. corporate control of many of the world's economies by granting -- or withholding -- major funding to international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian, African and Inter-American Development Banks. Section 599a of this Act cut off all aid, credit, and loans to Yugoslavia and demanded immediate, separate elections in each of the country's six republics. The U.S. State Department would alone determine the validity of each election and resume aid to individual regions if the victors were deemed "democratic."

Hence, in areas of Yugoslavia already severely destabilized by a dislocated economy, with strains of micro-nationalism fracturing the political and social landscape, a major influx of U.S. dollars went directly to those right-wing secessionist parties who won these cobbled-up elections. This was in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The effect of Section 599a was as if deftly placed wedges had been inserted by the U.S. exactly along fissures of nationalism and ethnic identity and a sledge brought down on each. The economy entirely collapsed, recriminations broke out on all sides and, with separatist tendencies ignited by interventionism, the CIA in The New York Times of November 28, predicted civil war in Yugoslavia.

[link to www.zianet.com]





Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the President's Meeting With Prime Minister Ante Markovic of Yugoslavia
October 13, 1989

The President met with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic in the Oval Office for approximately a half hour. The President reaffirmed his strong support for Yugoslav independence, unity, and sovereignty. He welcomed Prime Minister Markovic's commitment to market-oriented economic reform and to building democratic pluralism throughout Yugoslavia

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

The President reiterated U.S. support for the European Community's ongoing efforts to help resolve the Yugoslav crisis and urged President Mesic to continue cooperating with the United States, the EC, and others in the interest of a peaceful transition to a new Yugoslavia.

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

Records on CIA National Intelligence Estimate “Yugoslavia Transformed”

The materials in FOIA 2010-0605-F are a selective, not necessarily all inclusive, body of documents responsive to the topic of the FOIA. Researchers should consult the archivist about related materials.
FOIA 2010-0605-F contains materials related to the CIA National Intelligence Estimate entitled “Yugoslavia Transformed.” Materials include declassified National Security Agency cover sheets which route closed correspondence related to Yugoslavia.
It should be noted that a significant majority of the documents listed here are security classified and have been closed under the restrictions of the Freedom of Information Act.

[link to bushlibrary.tamu.edu]
 Quoting: Kathryn Albrecht 4358477


They are trying to do the same thing in Romania...
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:42 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
romania worth a tuppence
Anonymous Coward
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10/31/2011 05:48 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
similar to poland there is plenty slack to propel global growth potential. investment banks queue to maximize agricultural and exploit human resource potential
a (OP)
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Slovenia
10/31/2011 05:48 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
I hear a cry for Yugoslavia from Slovenia...probably something is wrong with Europe...

ouncsam
 Quoting: kemicar


i dont really cry for yugoslavia, allthough in most instances, it was far better than the eu and the nato the west and our corrupt politicians pulled us into.

the independence was a hoax and a myth.
kemicar

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10/31/2011 06:10 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Those were strange times ... socialism is collapsing and we are expecting a better world, one that we looked over the fence ... but we got a war. I do not think that America or anyone else is responsible for the war. The people wanted a war ... not all but enough to start a war. We got what we got, and nobody is happy ...
wakeup
a (OP)
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Slovenia
10/31/2011 10:00 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Those were strange times ... socialism is collapsing and we are expecting a better world, one that we looked over the fence ... but we got a war. I do not think that America or anyone else is responsible for the war. The people wanted a war ... not all but enough to start a war. We got what we got, and nobody is happy ...
wakeup
 Quoting: kemicar


cant you read?

bush senior issued a law forbidding to give any credits to yugoslavia, only to separated republics!

before that, the advisors of Markovic (actually IMF agents) pulled Yugoslavia into financial shit.

what people wanted war?

are you that young to not know anything about those times?

everybody was hyped up by the media. nobody wanted war, but the media portrayed always the "others" as threatening.

now it is obvious, why the media hyped the war...because the republic governments needed to separate from yugoslavia, otherwise they would get no money from the world bank....
New Age Messiah

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10/31/2011 10:03 PM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
plitvice
kemicar

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11/01/2011 04:54 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Those were strange times ... socialism is collapsing and we are expecting a better world, one that we looked over the fence ... but we got a war. I do not think that America or anyone else is responsible for the war. The people wanted a war ... not all but enough to start a war. We got what we got, and nobody is happy ...
wakeup
 Quoting: kemicar


cant you read?

bush senior issued a law forbidding to give any credits to yugoslavia, only to separated republics!

before that, the advisors of Markovic (actually IMF agents) pulled Yugoslavia into financial shit.

what people wanted war?

are you that young to not know anything about those times?

everybody was hyped up by the media. nobody wanted war, but the media portrayed always the "others" as threatening.

now it is obvious, why the media hyped the war...because the republic governments needed to separate from yugoslavia, otherwise they would get no money from the world bank....
 Quoting: a 4358477


I read, I read ...
I remember those days because I was at that time studying in Novi Sad. It started with the yogurt revolution. Slobodan Milosevic took advantage of workers' anger (created by economic situation) to abolish the autonomy of Vojvodina. It sparked fears of a Greater Serbia and the situation began to polarize. It was also a rebellion of miners in Kosovo. Slovenia and Croatia supported them. Serbs are perceived as an act against. Parallel to the political developments, Ante Markovic tried to save Yugoslavia economically. He introduced the convertibility of the dinar, and reduced debt. He had the support of the IMF and the U.S. government because he had a comprehensive economic program.
[link to www.liderpress.hr]

Unfortunately, national tensions were stronger ...

Last Edited by kemicar on 11/01/2011 05:38 AM
a
User ID: 4408159
Slovenia
11/01/2011 06:12 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Those were strange times ... socialism is collapsing and we are expecting a better world, one that we looked over the fence ... but we got a war. I do not think that America or anyone else is responsible for the war. The people wanted a war ... not all but enough to start a war. We got what we got, and nobody is happy ...
wakeup
 Quoting: kemicar


cant you read?

bush senior issued a law forbidding to give any credits to yugoslavia, only to separated republics!

before that, the advisors of Markovic (actually IMF agents) pulled Yugoslavia into financial shit.

what people wanted war?

are you that young to not know anything about those times?

everybody was hyped up by the media. nobody wanted war, but the media portrayed always the "others" as threatening.

now it is obvious, why the media hyped the war...because the republic governments needed to separate from yugoslavia, otherwise they would get no money from the world bank....
 Quoting: a 4358477


I read, I read ...
I remember those days because I was at that time studying in Novi Sad. It started with the yogurt revolution. Slobodan Milosevic took advantage of workers' anger (created by economic situation) to abolish the autonomy of Vojvodina. It sparked fears of a Greater Serbia and the situation began to polarize. It was also a rebellion of miners in Kosovo. Slovenia and Croatia supported them. Serbs are perceived as an act against. Parallel to the political developments, Ante Markovic tried to save Yugoslavia economically. He introduced the convertibility of the dinar, and reduced debt. He had the support of the IMF and the U.S. government because he had a comprehensive economic program.
[link to www.liderpress.hr]

Unfortunately, national tensions were stronger ...
 Quoting: kemicar


yes but it was all a show, since they were forced to separate because of the money. baker told miloshevic he can close slovenian borders, but then retreat and get bosnia and part of croatia - he was in belgrade one week before the JNA closed the slovenian borders and they were laughing and holding eatchothers shoulders (i think they were schoolmates in an american law school).
the americans told the croats they could have bosnia and to the rest they told what they all wanted to hear (slovenia independency, etc.
it was an american hoex to pull yugoslavia into war and profit thereof.
our puppet poiticians had no other chance as to listen to their "friends", because that was the only way they could get money. markovic was totaly hoaxed. he believed the west and they simply sacrifised him, as they did with numerous others, miloshevic etc...
Anonymous Coward
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11/01/2011 06:40 AM
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pigchef
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clinton no
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Yugoslavia was once a regional industrial power and economic succes. Two decades before 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent and life expectancy was 72 years.

the Reagan administration targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD 133), "Us policy towards Yugoslavia". A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 64 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982. The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a "quiet revolution" to overthrow Communist governments and parties", while reintegrating the countries of astern Europe into a market oriented economy.

[link to www.globaltenders.com]


Whatever Happened to Yugoslavia?

The International Monetary Fund became the chief weapon used to destroy Balkan unity. Increased ethnic friction, then, can be seen as only a secondary cause of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia. As British economist and political analyst Sean Gervasi has stated, "Foreign intervention was designed to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried."

IMF austerity measures were imposed in autumn 1989. The currency was further devalued, wages frozen, and state industries deemed "unprofitable under structural adjustment" (worker-owned companies) were closed. Unemployment immediately rose 20%. The federal government in Belgrade regularly transferred treasury payments to the republics and autonomous regions. Those payments were now stopped, the funds mandated by the IMF to service foreign debt. As the Berlin Wall was falling, wages in Yugoslavia fell 41%.

At this juncture, Prime Minister Ante Markovic visited Washington and reported worriedly that ethnic tensions were rising in the republics (New York Times, 10/14/89). George Bush convinced Markovic of the wisdom of more debt restructuring. An emergency foreign aid package was negotiated when Markovic promised to return home and liberalize constitutional controls on foreign investments. Markovic's ensuing legislation forced over one thousand by-then insolvent enterprises into bankruptcy. These companies could subsequently be purchased 'for a song' by Western investors.

Next, 650,000 Yugoslav workers struck. Although travail was increasing within the republics due to the precipitous decline, workers united in solidarity across all ethnic lines. It was in this atmosphere that Communist party leader Slobodan Milosevic came to power in the fall 1990 elections, railing against the dire conditions. Milosevic's gravest error was in not building upon worker solidarity at this juncture by appealing for the unity of all Yugoslavians. He lacked either the decency or the diplomacy to address each republic's complaints as the federation groaned and strained under economic duress. At a time when nationalist/separatist tendencies were flaring up in the republics, Milosevic fanned the flames by calling only for a united Serbia.


THE BREAKING POINT
Meanwhile, the economy plummeted. Eastern European Economics reported industrial production declined to a negative 10% growth rate and the GDP to a negative 7.5%. Then Milosevic took a bold step, one which would irrevocably condemn him in the eyes of Western monetary powers: he halted the IMF and U.S.-mandated reforms. He brought "structural adjustment" to a standstill.
Revenge was swift. One month later, in early November 1990, the U.S. Congress passed Foreign Operations Appropriations Law 101-513. Annual "foreign operations" appropriations facilitate U.S. corporate control of many of the world's economies by granting -- or withholding -- major funding to international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian, African and Inter-American Development Banks. Section 599a of this Act cut off all aid, credit, and loans to Yugoslavia and demanded immediate, separate elections in each of the country's six republics. The U.S. State Department would alone determine the validity of each election and resume aid to individual regions if the victors were deemed "democratic."

Hence, in areas of Yugoslavia already severely destabilized by a dislocated economy, with strains of micro-nationalism fracturing the political and social landscape, a major influx of U.S. dollars went directly to those right-wing secessionist parties who won these cobbled-up elections. This was in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The effect of Section 599a was as if deftly placed wedges had been inserted by the U.S. exactly along fissures of nationalism and ethnic identity and a sledge brought down on each. The economy entirely collapsed, recriminations broke out on all sides and, with separatist tendencies ignited by interventionism, the CIA in The New York Times of November 28, predicted civil war in Yugoslavia.

[link to www.zianet.com]





Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the President's Meeting With Prime Minister Ante Markovic of Yugoslavia
October 13, 1989

The President met with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic in the Oval Office for approximately a half hour. The President reaffirmed his strong support for Yugoslav independence, unity, and sovereignty. He welcomed Prime Minister Markovic's commitment to market-oriented economic reform and to building democratic pluralism throughout Yugoslavia

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

The President reiterated U.S. support for the European Community's ongoing efforts to help resolve the Yugoslav crisis and urged President Mesic to continue cooperating with the United States, the EC, and others in the interest of a peaceful transition to a new Yugoslavia.

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

Records on CIA National Intelligence Estimate “Yugoslavia Transformed”

The materials in FOIA 2010-0605-F are a selective, not necessarily all inclusive, body of documents responsive to the topic of the FOIA. Researchers should consult the archivist about related materials.
FOIA 2010-0605-F contains materials related to the CIA National Intelligence Estimate entitled “Yugoslavia Transformed.” Materials include declassified National Security Agency cover sheets which route closed correspondence related to Yugoslavia.
It should be noted that a significant majority of the documents listed here are security classified and have been closed under the restrictions of the Freedom of Information Act.

[link to bushlibrary.tamu.edu]
 Quoting: Kathryn Albrecht 4358477




It's fine. They should not exist anyway. The land belongs to Hungary and Germany.
kemicar

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11/01/2011 06:43 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
MKD
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11/01/2011 06:57 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Any similarity that now EU has with former Yugoslavia is purely coincidence!!!
OR NOT!!!
Anonymous Coward
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11/01/2011 07:04 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


your saying the americans out foxed yougoslavia.
Maybe as tito rule died the glue holding it together unstuck.
Sharty Mc Bean

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11/01/2011 07:08 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
i say it was the muzzie population that reached critical mass.

just like it will happen to the rest of europe soon...
Anonymous Coward
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11/01/2011 07:13 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
America likes the slave system. never get a superiority complex against america
a
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11/01/2011 07:18 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


sure, that is why the jna pulled out of slovenia...

...but the jna did get an excellent start for fighting against the croats and at the same time, they did a favour to americans, because they scared the slovenian politicians into the arms of the west and forcing them to make secret concessions (most probably: nato and eu membership in exchange for peace and gun selling to the croats)

if the russians rejected to help, that can mean only one thing. it was pre-arranged between the russians and americans - maybe only to an extent and maybe the americans later broke some part of their deal ( as usual)...

anyway, it is an illusion things happened in yugoslavia according to inner tensions - most of these tensions were orchestrated by foreign powers, mainly the us and the vatican..
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 4413125
Italy
11/01/2011 07:34 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


sure, that is why the jna pulled out of slovenia...

...but the jna did get an excellent start for fighting against the croats and at the same time, they did a favour to americans, because they scared the slovenian politicians into the arms of the west and forcing them to make secret concessions (most probably: nato and eu membership in exchange for peace and gun selling to the croats)

if the russians rejected to help, that can mean only one thing. it was pre-arranged between the russians and americans - maybe only to an extent and maybe the americans later broke some part of their deal ( as usual)...

anyway, it is an illusion things happened in yugoslavia according to inner tensions - most of these tensions were orchestrated by foreign powers, mainly the us and the vatican..
 Quoting: a 4408159



probably at that time Russia was not is position to help anybody ...not even itself

Russia lost all the countries of USSR and was in deep economic shit

if happened now Putin would help

Gorbachiov and Yealsin were NWO shills
kemicar

User ID: 4409420
Croatia
11/01/2011 07:39 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


your saying the americans out foxed yougoslavia.
Maybe as tito rule died the glue holding it together unstuck.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 4247902


I do not want to say that Americans foxed Yugoslavia, since Yugoslavia, at that moment de facto no longer existed. The only one who is still represented Yugoslavia was Ante Markovic, the Prime Minister. The U.S. government has concluded that if the war starts this is the end of Yugoslavia. What America said is that if Milosevic began a war America will no longer support Ante Markovic. America would not intervene militarily. When war is started America over the UN, brings resolution on arms embargo on the former Yougoslavia, what gives the military advantage to Serbia, (well-armed army of Yugoslavia was dominantly Serbia's army). That was big mistake ...or not? Who knows?

Tito was a dictator and he suppressed nationalism. When he died nationalism started and everything ended in blood.
a
User ID: 4408159
Slovenia
11/01/2011 07:40 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


your saying the americans out foxed yougoslavia.
Maybe as tito rule died the glue holding it together unstuck.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 4247902


tito was a high degree freemason.

yugoslavia was an experiment from the very start in 1919.
that experiment was forced by western powers, because they wanted serbia to rule yugoslavia instead of carinthia, which was too close to vienna and venice. that is why triest and carinthia went to austria instead of slovenia. because there is an ancient throne in carinthia and the ancient metropolis of triest should be our capital, but that would make the south slavonics too strong too close to italy and germany.
that is why they prefered the serbs to join the slovenians, croats and bosnians who becme free of the austrians and have planned for 50 years already a triple crown monarchy, namely austro - hungarian - slavonic, but after the was established a slovene - croat - serb state without serbia, days before they joined with the serbs into a serb - croatian - slovene state

the serbs agreed to mnimize the role of slovenians and croats in yugoslavia to please the western powers, but that angered the slovenes and croats.

during the war, people at large arose against the germans, but without a proper government (that fled to england) there was only one group that was able to get organized on a state level. that was the group, which was ilegal during the kingdom of yugoslavia and was forced to get ilegaly organized, namely the communists. they took over the partisan movement and established a communist rule after the war. tito was the top of the communists and as an international secret agent, he had diplomatic knowledge and connections to be able to bargain with the west for a relative autonomy.
what he bargained was again the carinhian throne and triest (although already liberated from germans by the partisans), what he got in exchange were the war prisoners, mostly croatian ustasha and serbian chetnicks, who fled to austria and got caught by the british.
tito was able to play an international role and with Naser and Nehru, he even introduced the non aligned movement, which in my opinion, is his big political move.
yes, after his death, the vultures came and tore yugoslavia to pieces.

it was the old roman way, that caesar used in ancient gaul: using ancient little quarrels among neighbours as excuse to push one tribe against the other and basically let the gauls fight among eachother, then later come only to pick up the booty...
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 4408159
Slovenia
11/01/2011 07:45 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
i say it was the muzzie population that reached critical mass.

just like it will happen to the rest of europe soon...
 Quoting: Sharty Mc Bean


baby

Yugoslavia was once a regional industrial power and economic succes. Two decades before 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent and life expectancy was 72 years.

the Reagan administration targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD 133), "Us policy towards Yugoslavia". A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 64 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982. The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a "quiet revolution" to overthrow Communist governments and parties", while reintegrating the countries of astern Europe into a market oriented economy.

[link to www.globaltenders.com]


Whatever Happened to Yugoslavia?

The International Monetary Fund became the chief weapon used to destroy Balkan unity. Increased ethnic friction, then, can be seen as only a secondary cause of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia. As British economist and political analyst Sean Gervasi has stated, "Foreign intervention was designed to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried."

IMF austerity measures were imposed in autumn 1989. The currency was further devalued, wages frozen, and state industries deemed "unprofitable under structural adjustment" (worker-owned companies) were closed. Unemployment immediately rose 20%. The federal government in Belgrade regularly transferred treasury payments to the republics and autonomous regions. Those payments were now stopped, the funds mandated by the IMF to service foreign debt. As the Berlin Wall was falling, wages in Yugoslavia fell 41%.

At this juncture, Prime Minister Ante Markovic visited Washington and reported worriedly that ethnic tensions were rising in the republics (New York Times, 10/14/89). George Bush convinced Markovic of the wisdom of more debt restructuring. An emergency foreign aid package was negotiated when Markovic promised to return home and liberalize constitutional controls on foreign investments. Markovic's ensuing legislation forced over one thousand by-then insolvent enterprises into bankruptcy. These companies could subsequently be purchased 'for a song' by Western investors.

Next, 650,000 Yugoslav workers struck. Although travail was increasing within the republics due to the precipitous decline, workers united in solidarity across all ethnic lines. It was in this atmosphere that Communist party leader Slobodan Milosevic came to power in the fall 1990 elections, railing against the dire conditions. Milosevic's gravest error was in not building upon worker solidarity at this juncture by appealing for the unity of all Yugoslavians. He lacked either the decency or the diplomacy to address each republic's complaints as the federation groaned and strained under economic duress. At a time when nationalist/separatist tendencies were flaring up in the republics, Milosevic fanned the flames by calling only for a united Serbia.


THE BREAKING POINT
Meanwhile, the economy plummeted. Eastern European Economics reported industrial production declined to a negative 10% growth rate and the GDP to a negative 7.5%. Then Milosevic took a bold step, one which would irrevocably condemn him in the eyes of Western monetary powers: he halted the IMF and U.S.-mandated reforms. He brought "structural adjustment" to a standstill.
Revenge was swift. One month later, in early November 1990, the U.S. Congress passed Foreign Operations Appropriations Law 101-513. Annual "foreign operations" appropriations facilitate U.S. corporate control of many of the world's economies by granting -- or withholding -- major funding to international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian, African and Inter-American Development Banks. Section 599a of this Act cut off all aid, credit, and loans to Yugoslavia and demanded immediate, separate elections in each of the country's six republics. The U.S. State Department would alone determine the validity of each election and resume aid to individual regions if the victors were deemed "democratic."

Hence, in areas of Yugoslavia already severely destabilized by a dislocated economy, with strains of micro-nationalism fracturing the political and social landscape, a major influx of U.S. dollars went directly to those right-wing secessionist parties who won these cobbled-up elections. This was in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The effect of Section 599a was as if deftly placed wedges had been inserted by the U.S. exactly along fissures of nationalism and ethnic identity and a sledge brought down on each. The economy entirely collapsed, recriminations broke out on all sides and, with separatist tendencies ignited by interventionism, the CIA in The New York Times of November 28, predicted civil war in Yugoslavia.

[link to www.zianet.com]





Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the President's Meeting With Prime Minister Ante Markovic of Yugoslavia
October 13, 1989

The President met with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic in the Oval Office for approximately a half hour. The President reaffirmed his strong support for Yugoslav independence, unity, and sovereignty. He welcomed Prime Minister Markovic's commitment to market-oriented economic reform and to building democratic pluralism throughout Yugoslavia

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

The President reiterated U.S. support for the European Community's ongoing efforts to help resolve the Yugoslav crisis and urged President Mesic to continue cooperating with the United States, the EC, and others in the interest of a peaceful transition to a new Yugoslavia.

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

Records on CIA National Intelligence Estimate “Yugoslavia Transformed”

The materials in FOIA 2010-0605-F are a selective, not necessarily all inclusive, body of documents responsive to the topic of the FOIA. Researchers should consult the archivist about related materials.
FOIA 2010-0605-F contains materials related to the CIA National Intelligence Estimate entitled “Yugoslavia Transformed.” Materials include declassified National Security Agency cover sheets which route closed correspondence related to Yugoslavia.
It should be noted that a significant majority of the documents listed here are security classified and have been closed under the restrictions of the Freedom of Information Act.

[link to bushlibrary.tamu.edu]
 Quoting: Kathryn Albrecht 4358477




It's fine. They should not exist anyway. The land belongs to Hungary and Germany.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 974998


Yugoslavia was once a regional industrial power and economic succes. Two decades before 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent and life expectancy was 72 years.

the Reagan administration targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD 133), "Us policy towards Yugoslavia". A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 64 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982. The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a "quiet revolution" to overthrow Communist governments and parties", while reintegrating the countries of astern Europe into a market oriented economy.

[link to www.globaltenders.com]


Whatever Happened to Yugoslavia?

The International Monetary Fund became the chief weapon used to destroy Balkan unity. Increased ethnic friction, then, can be seen as only a secondary cause of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia. As British economist and political analyst Sean Gervasi has stated, "Foreign intervention was designed to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried."

IMF austerity measures were imposed in autumn 1989. The currency was further devalued, wages frozen, and state industries deemed "unprofitable under structural adjustment" (worker-owned companies) were closed. Unemployment immediately rose 20%. The federal government in Belgrade regularly transferred treasury payments to the republics and autonomous regions. Those payments were now stopped, the funds mandated by the IMF to service foreign debt. As the Berlin Wall was falling, wages in Yugoslavia fell 41%.

At this juncture, Prime Minister Ante Markovic visited Washington and reported worriedly that ethnic tensions were rising in the republics (New York Times, 10/14/89). George Bush convinced Markovic of the wisdom of more debt restructuring. An emergency foreign aid package was negotiated when Markovic promised to return home and liberalize constitutional controls on foreign investments. Markovic's ensuing legislation forced over one thousand by-then insolvent enterprises into bankruptcy. These companies could subsequently be purchased 'for a song' by Western investors.

Next, 650,000 Yugoslav workers struck. Although travail was increasing within the republics due to the precipitous decline, workers united in solidarity across all ethnic lines. It was in this atmosphere that Communist party leader Slobodan Milosevic came to power in the fall 1990 elections, railing against the dire conditions. Milosevic's gravest error was in not building upon worker solidarity at this juncture by appealing for the unity of all Yugoslavians. He lacked either the decency or the diplomacy to address each republic's complaints as the federation groaned and strained under economic duress. At a time when nationalist/separatist tendencies were flaring up in the republics, Milosevic fanned the flames by calling only for a united Serbia.


THE BREAKING POINT
Meanwhile, the economy plummeted. Eastern European Economics reported industrial production declined to a negative 10% growth rate and the GDP to a negative 7.5%. Then Milosevic took a bold step, one which would irrevocably condemn him in the eyes of Western monetary powers: he halted the IMF and U.S.-mandated reforms. He brought "structural adjustment" to a standstill.
Revenge was swift. One month later, in early November 1990, the U.S. Congress passed Foreign Operations Appropriations Law 101-513. Annual "foreign operations" appropriations facilitate U.S. corporate control of many of the world's economies by granting -- or withholding -- major funding to international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian, African and Inter-American Development Banks. Section 599a of this Act cut off all aid, credit, and loans to Yugoslavia and demanded immediate, separate elections in each of the country's six republics. The U.S. State Department would alone determine the validity of each election and resume aid to individual regions if the victors were deemed "democratic."

Hence, in areas of Yugoslavia already severely destabilized by a dislocated economy, with strains of micro-nationalism fracturing the political and social landscape, a major influx of U.S. dollars went directly to those right-wing secessionist parties who won these cobbled-up elections. This was in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The effect of Section 599a was as if deftly placed wedges had been inserted by the U.S. exactly along fissures of nationalism and ethnic identity and a sledge brought down on each. The economy entirely collapsed, recriminations broke out on all sides and, with separatist tendencies ignited by interventionism, the CIA in The New York Times of November 28, predicted civil war in Yugoslavia.

[link to www.zianet.com]





Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the President's Meeting With Prime Minister Ante Markovic of Yugoslavia
October 13, 1989

The President met with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic in the Oval Office for approximately a half hour. The President reaffirmed his strong support for Yugoslav independence, unity, and sovereignty. He welcomed Prime Minister Markovic's commitment to market-oriented economic reform and to building democratic pluralism throughout Yugoslavia

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

The President reiterated U.S. support for the European Community's ongoing efforts to help resolve the Yugoslav crisis and urged President Mesic to continue cooperating with the United States, the EC, and others in the interest of a peaceful transition to a new Yugoslavia.

[link to www.presidency.ucsb.edu]

Records on CIA National Intelligence Estimate “Yugoslavia Transformed”

The materials in FOIA 2010-0605-F are a selective, not necessarily all inclusive, body of documents responsive to the topic of the FOIA. Researchers should consult the archivist about related materials.
FOIA 2010-0605-F contains materials related to the CIA National Intelligence Estimate entitled “Yugoslavia Transformed.” Materials include declassified National Security Agency cover sheets which route closed correspondence related to Yugoslavia.
It should be noted that a significant majority of the documents listed here are security classified and have been closed under the restrictions of the Freedom of Information Act.

[link to bushlibrary.tamu.edu]
 Quoting: Kathryn Albrecht 4358477




It's fine. They should not exist anyway. The land belongs to Hungary and Germany.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 974998


baby
a
User ID: 4408159
Slovenia
11/01/2011 07:46 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
Any similarity that now EU has with former Yugoslavia is purely coincidence!!!
OR NOT!!!
 Quoting: MKD 4409262


well, there are some similarities but let's hope ther won't be any war in europe...
kemicar

User ID: 4409420
Croatia
11/01/2011 07:47 AM
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Re: Yugoslavia was destroyed by the IMF and the American government
A few days before the start of Yugoslavia bloody revel in Slovenia in June 1991st , Belgrade was visited by then U.S. Secretary of State James Baker. The U.S., of course, knew about Milosevic's plans, and the only reason for withdrawal of Belgrade's commencement of the war in Slovenia was the fear of the possible reactions of the NATO-led America. Therefore, only a few days before the Baker visit to Moscow secretly (without the knowledge of Prime Minister Ante Markovic) traveled the Federal Secretary for National Defence Veljko Kadijevic. He returned disappointed: the first man the Soviet Army General Dmitry Yazov he said that he could not count on Soviet assistance in the event of NATO intervention in Yugoslavia after the JNA attack on Slovenia. But Milosevic and Kadijevic sun grew hot with a side that had at least hoped for: Secretary of State Baker to them bluntly said exactly what they thought - if the JNA attacked Slovenia, the West up on Yugoslavia, followed by isolation of the country and the denial of billions of dollars promised to help.

[link to www.bhdani.com]
 Quoting: kemicar


sure, that is why the jna pulled out of slovenia...

...but the jna did get an excellent start for fighting against the croats and at the same time, they did a favour to americans, because they scared the slovenian politicians into the arms of the west and forcing them to make secret concessions (most probably: nato and eu membership in exchange for peace and gun selling to the croats)

if the russians rejected to help, that can mean only one thing. it was pre-arranged between the russians and americans - maybe only to an extent and maybe the americans later broke some part of their deal ( as usual)...

anyway, it is an illusion things happened in yugoslavia according to inner tensions - most of these tensions were orchestrated by foreign powers, mainly the us and the vatican..
 Quoting: a 4408159


Yes...I think relation between America and situation in Russia was of the great importance because USSR was collapsing and for America was better making "DO NOT TOUCH" politics.

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