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<<Advancing Bird Flu-H5N1...Now following MERS and Ebola approaching PANDEMICS>>>

 
arkay (OP)

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09/27/2012 12:03 AM

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This next article is without doubt the best I have read that refers to H5N1 and its variations and how it is evolving and what and where these evolutionary changes are occuring.

At times the article does get a little technical, but it is written in a way that most lay people can gain a good understanding of this bugs evolution over time and around the world.

Its lengthy, but an excellent compliation of information.

Avian influenza A H5N1 virus: a continuous threat to humans


Kelvin KW To1,2,3, Kenneth HL Ng4, Tak-Lun Que4, Jacky MC Chan5, Kay-Yan Tsang5, Alan KL Tsang2,3, Honglin Chen1,2,3 and Kwok-Yung Yuen1,2,3

1State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
2Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
3Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
4Department of Pathology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
5Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Correspondence: KY Yuen, E-mail: kyyuen@hku.hk

Received 8 May 2012; Revised 11 June 2012; Accepted 16 July 2012

Abstract

We report the first case of severe pneumonia due to co-infection with the emerging avian influenza A (H5N1) virus subclade 2.3.2.1 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The patient was a returning traveller who had visited a poultry market in South China. We then review the epidemiology, virology, interspecies barrier limiting poultry-to-human transmission, clinical manifestation, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and control measures of H5N1 clades that can be transmitted to humans. The recent controversy regarding the experiments involving aerosol transmission of recombinant H5N1 virus between ferrets is discussed. We also review the relative contribution of the poor response to antiviral treatment and the virus-induced hyperinflammatory damage to the pathogenesis and the high mortality of this infection. The factors related to the host, virus or medical intervention leading to the difference in disease mortality of different countries remain unknown. Because most developing countries have difficulty in instituting effective biosecurity measures, poultry vaccination becomes an important control measure. The rapid evolution of the virus would adversely affect the efficacy of poultry vaccination unless a correctly matched vaccine was chosen, manufactured and administered in a timely manner. Vigilant surveillance must continue to allow better preparedness for another poultry or human pandemic due to new viral mutants.


Link here...

[link to www.nature.com]
arkay (OP)

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09/27/2012 12:51 AM

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In this next article the USDA has released a H3N2v sequence that matches swine isolates from last year.

The article then goes on to say that there have been no human infections from this strain even though it is "common and widespread" in swine.

The article then goes on to state that this strain matches all 60 sets of sequences that originated from patient zero in 2011.

This all seems confusing to say the least and offers no explaination for all the human H3N2v cases that have been detected, and associated with county fairs, apart from to infer that no case from patient zero has emerged in 2012, and that there must have been two parallel strains in swine at county fairs.

One that has infected humans, and another that has not.

This all just sounds so confusing to follow and when the details surrounding this mysterious "mink" sequence arent even known, well it just seems to be too convenient and still leaves far too many unsatisfactory assumptions that need to be made in order to explain the "county fair" outbreaks.

Here is the confusing paragraph.

Although this sub-clade is common and widespread in swine, including Ohio and Indiana where most of the recent human H3N2v cases were isolated, none of these swine (or mink) infections have produced a reported human case in 2012.

Link here...

[link to www.recombinomics.com]

Perhaps somebody else might be able to come forward with this one and offer a more complete interpretation of what is being stated here, because, I for one, just dont get it!
Anonymous Coward
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09/27/2012 08:02 AM
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Date: Sun 22 Apr 2012
Source: Jordan Times [edited]
[link to jordantimes.com]
Emergency team searching for cause of unidentified illness
覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧-
The disease that broke out in the Intensive Care Unit of Zarqa Public Hospital late last week [week of 19 Apr 2012] has not yet been identified, but the outbreak is under control, Minster of Health Abdul Latif Wreikat said on Sunday [22 Apr 2012].
The ministry on Friday [20 Apr 2012] closed the hospital痴 ICU after an unknown illness believed to be pneumonia affected 7 nurses, one of whom died on Thursday [19 Apr 2012], one doctor, and the brother of one of the nurses.
The minister said that so far, only 11 people have been confirmed infected with the disease, 4 of whom are receiving treatment and responding positively to medication, while 6 others have already been discharged from the hospital.
The ministry has set up an emergency team from its Communicable Diseases Directorate to investigate the cause of the illness, he said.
典he ministry痴 team took samples from the infected citizens, who also underwent intensive care measures to identify the cause, Wreikat told reporters at a press conference on Sunday [22 Apr 2012], noting that the infected patients symptoms are similar to those of pneumonia.
The minister, who visited the Zarqa hospital on Saturday [21 Apr 2012], said the ministry has confirmed that the outbreak has been brought under control and that the infected individuals are not in danger of spreading the disease to others.
Meanwhile, the minister said, the hospital has been sterilised 3 times over the past 3 days as a precautionary measure, while its employees have received a short, intensive training course on preventing the disease from spreading.
He also urged the media to be cautious and objective in reporting on the outbreak.
[Byline: Hani Hazaimeh]

Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
promed@promedmail.org
[ProMED-mail would like to thank Dr Lai for raising this very astute query and for alerting us to this prior report of an earlier outbreak of severe respiratory disease in the region. This moderator has checked the WHO archives and the ProMED-mail archives and could not find reports on the above mentioned outbreak. The ECDC report is the only formal report on this outbreak. A retrospective search of HealthMap Alerts from 2 Apr 2012 through 25 Apr 2012 looking for reports of pneumonia outbreaks that might be related to this current event only identified a report on the above mentioned outbreak in Jordan in April 2012.
There are a series of newswire reports in the Jordanian Times on this event at the time of the outbreak -- the report above in [2] is a comprehensive discussion of the event. Another report the preceding day (21 Apr 2012) highlighted the fact that after the 1st severe case, staff were not using adequate infection control measures, especially an absence of use of masks (see [link to jordantimes.com] From these reports, it appears as though the outbreak in Jordan was a nosocomial outbreak involving healthcare personnel working in an ICU where presumably a patient with a severe pneumonia had been hospitalized quite possibly related to deficiencies in respiratory infection control measures.
It would be of interest to know if the etiology of the outbreak was ever identified, along with more information on the epidemiologic studies conducted at the time. Information on the index case in that outbreak would be of interest as well.
The interactive HealthMap/ProMED map of the region can be found at [link to healthmap.org] As can be seen on the map, Jordan shares borders with Saudi Arabia to the east and southeast, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, and the West Bank and Israel to the west. Mod.MPP]
See Also
Novel coronavirus Saudi Arabia (03): UK HPA, WHO, Qatar 20120923.1305982
Novel coronavirus Saudi Arabia (02): additional cases, RFI 20120923.1305931
Novel coronavirus Saudi Arabia: human isolate 20120920.1302733
2009
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Anonymous Coward
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09/27/2012 02:06 PM
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Authorities issued an advisory to Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) in Saudi Arabia and Qatar about the widespread disease SARS-like Coronavirus.

Physicians at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) quarantine section obliged OFWs to observe proper personal hygiene to avoid getting the virus which is fatal if symptoms are not immediately treated.

Health officials in the Philippines are on alert for a possible entry of the deadly Coronavirus in the country.
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09/27/2012 02:17 PM
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In this next article the USDA has released a H3N2v sequence that matches swine isolates from last year.

The article then goes on to say that there have been no human infections from this strain even though it is "common and widespread" in swine.

The article then goes on to state that this strain matches all 60 sets of sequences that originated from patient zero in 2011.

This all seems confusing to say the least and offers no explaination for all the human H3N2v cases that have been detected, and associated with county fairs, apart from to infer that no case from patient zero has emerged in 2012, and that there must have been two parallel strains in swine at county fairs.

One that has infected humans, and another that has not.

This all just sounds so confusing to follow and when the details surrounding this mysterious "mink" sequence arent even known, well it just seems to be too convenient and still leaves far too many unsatisfactory assumptions that need to be made in order to explain the "county fair" outbreaks.

Here is the confusing paragraph.

Although this sub-clade is common and widespread in swine, including Ohio and Indiana where most of the recent human H3N2v cases were isolated, none of these swine (or mink) infections have produced a reported human case in 2012.

Link here...

[link to www.recombinomics.com]

[link to pfam.sanger.ac.uk]

hope this helps


Perhaps somebody else might be able to come forward with this one and offer a more complete interpretation of what is being stated here, because, I for one, just dont get it!
 Quoting: arkay
Anonymous Coward
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09/27/2012 02:20 PM
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[link to www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

this I guess is an explanation of different types of flu and sequences
Anonymous Coward
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09/27/2012 02:24 PM
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[link to www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anonymous Coward
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09/27/2012 02:38 PM
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[link to www.genedb.org]

now I don't know if this is of use but seems tone a breakdown of code for above sites proteins genes act I am not medically qualified so difficult for me to make to much sense of this but I am sure you have readers who can
explain .
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09/27/2012 02:43 PM
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[link to www.healthmap.org]

regular updating map
arkay (OP)

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09/27/2012 11:35 PM

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In this next article the USDA has released a H3N2v sequence that matches swine isolates from last year.

The article then goes on to say that there have been no human infections from this strain even though it is "common and widespread" in swine.

The article then goes on to state that this strain matches all 60 sets of sequences that originated from patient zero in 2011.

This all seems confusing to say the least and offers no explaination for all the human H3N2v cases that have been detected, and associated with county fairs, apart from to infer that no case from patient zero has emerged in 2012, and that there must have been two parallel strains in swine at county fairs.

One that has infected humans, and another that has not.

This all just sounds so confusing to follow and when the details surrounding this mysterious "mink" sequence arent even known, well it just seems to be too convenient and still leaves far too many unsatisfactory assumptions that need to be made in order to explain the "county fair" outbreaks.

Here is the confusing paragraph.

Although this sub-clade is common and widespread in swine, including Ohio and Indiana where most of the recent human H3N2v cases were isolated, none of these swine (or mink) infections have produced a reported human case in 2012.

Link here...

[link to www.recombinomics.com]

Perhaps somebody else might be able to come forward with this one and offer a more complete interpretation of what is being stated here, because, I for one, just dont get it!
 Quoting: arkay


Yesterday I posted the above, mainly because I had been regularly asserting that the H3N2v cases in the US did not appear to be consistent with what the CDC was telling us.

There have been several instances where the CDC has released confusing or outright missleading and incorrect information regarding the strain of H3N2v that has been assosciated with the county fairs and the apparent vectoring from swine to humans with this particular strain.

Well someone is listening, today from the same source comes a much more complete explaination of the real position of the spread of this strain and with it confirmation that my assertions have been correct and that the CDC has been "cooking the books" in relation to this flu strain and its "apparent" relationship with county fairs.

This was never the case, and we now see that the CDC has been biassing its figures in order to make it "appear" that this strain has been associated with those county fairs when this was never the case.

Where it does all lead back to is exactly where I have been questioning this strain right from the beginning and that was with Patient Zero who under "unusual" circumstances contracted this strain while in hospital for other medical conditions, and who was "influenza NEGATIVE' when first admitted to hospital but later developed this novel H3N2v strain of influenza which for the first time detected, carried with it the M gene from the H1N1 flu strain.

In other words, if it has to be put in black and white, this Patient Zero was artificially given this flu while in hospital, and then we have witnessed a deliberate attempt to disguise this strain as one associated with swine at county fairs, something that has never been bourne out with any proof.

It is clear now that the CDC has been complicit with the deliberate release of a flu strain that carries the pandemic M gene from the H1N1 swine flu.

This also happened at a time when it was too late to have this H3N2v strain included in this years upcoming flu vaccination recipe.

So we are now left with a strain of flu that is H2H transmissible and for which there will be no vaccination against this year.

All very convenient if you wanted to have a virus that will easily become the "seasonal" flu strain and also give it every chance of reassorting itself with a number of other deadly strains that are freely circulating in communities in various regions of the globe.

Just for starters think H5N1, or H1N1, or H1N2 from Korea that already also has the pandemic M gene from swine flu, the list goes on!

Perhaps it is time that someone in the right place begins to ask some very uncomfortable questions of those in the CDC who have been providing this shonkey information, and very importantly, just why?

I should also thank the folks at Recombinomics for clarifying this matter and putting matters into perspective for us all to fully understand, their work is always right up to date and accurate.

Here is the most important part of the explaination and linked further below.

Thus, there is little evidence to support extensive swine to human transmission at the 2011 or 2012 agricultural fairs. Although the genetic matches with the 2011 H3N2v cases are widespread in swine, including Ohio and Indiana isolates, no 2012 matching human H3N2v case has been reported. All 2012 human cases match a novel H3N2v sub-clade which was first detected at a West Virginia day care center in late 2011.

However, in spite of these match failures, the CDC continues to focus on swine to human transmission, and ignores the human to swine and human to human transmission at agricultural fairs.


Link here...

[link to www.recombinomics.com]

Last Edited by arkay on 09/27/2012 11:41 PM
arkay (OP)

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09/28/2012 12:08 AM

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Re: <<Advancing Bird Flu-H5N1...Now following MERS and Ebola approaching PANDEMICS>>>
Not withstanding the last post, we are presently seeing a sharp rise in H1N1 infections in India, with several deaths resulting from that disease.

Of note is the fact that several doctors have also contracted this disease, something that shouldnt easily happen.


The high mortality rate among those afflicted by swine flu in Madhya Pradesh (MP), is actually alarming. Bhopal tops the death toll with 7 out of 28 patients testing positive for the H1N1 virus succumbing during treatment. Indore is not far behind, where 5 of 5 patients have died of the dreaded virus.

In fact, the [doctor] in charge of the swine flu [group] at the directorate of health, Dr K K Thassu, issued a circular some days ago asking people not to be afraid of swine flu, as it is no longer an epidemic but only an endemic disease which can be cured through medication. At that time, swine flu fears seemed to be receding as most of the suspected swine flu patients were testing negative, and those admitted for treatment were responding well at both government and private hospitals. But in the past few days, the situation has changed dramatically. On Saturday [22 Sep 2012], 9 out of 11 samples sent for confirmation of swine flu tested positive, giving a clear indication that the infection was on the rise and facilities for its treatment grossly inadequate.


Link here...

[link to www.promedmail.org]

In the left menu under the heading...

27 Sep 2012 Influenza (92): India (MP, MH) H1N1 fatalities
Anonymous Coward
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09/28/2012 12:32 PM
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machine translation


Justice and Development monitored 70 cases of a rare infection schools Qena
28-09-2012 11-24AM


Qena - a unique prayer

Spotted the Justice and Development Organization for Human Rights appearance of 70 cases of a rare viral disease in Qena, suspected of causing illness parotid gland, between some school pupils in the governorate, including Omar bin Khattab Primary in Qena Marashda village.

FAO noted in its report that the virus is spreading by air, and turns deadly bacteria according to medical testimony, and its side effects is to increase body temperature, and may lead to death.

Organization confirmed to the high incidence of disease parotid glands of some villages and centers in Qena, including Abutst center, and the center of the stay, as well as the lack of health units vaccines for the treatment of viral disease is rare.

As spotted adoption more than 10 thousand people from the people of the villages Asamta Bdhna on water wells, and pumps Abyssinian, and the high incidence of renal failure, and bladder, the lack of water stations pure serve deprived villages in Qena, and the disqualification of drinking water water station, Arabs, and Nagagerh, which serve several areas because of vanilla plants and pollutants around the station.

For his part, criticized Zidane Alguenaúa - Organization official in Qena - continued blatant medical neglect to maintain, and the lack of action by the executive, and the failure to provide vaccines for treatment, visit the affected schools by the Ministry of Health, as well as the failure of the Department of Health to investigate the matter.

He demanded "Alguenaúy" urgent action by the Ministry of Health and analyze samples of drinking water in all water stations villages and centers Qena, send medical convoys to vaccinate children in different schools and find out the disease, its causes and providing vaccines for treatment before the outbreak and spread to various provinces, or converted to epidemic like the plague.

[link to www.rassd.com]


not flu but worth watching as airborne
Anonymous Coward
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09/28/2012 12:36 PM
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[link to www.cp24.com]
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[link to www.wkyt.com]
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[link to www.cdc.gov]
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Novel Influenza A Virus:

From July 12 through September 27, 2012, a total of 306 infections with influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses have been reported from ten states. One new case has been reported since last week痴 update. Cumulative totals by state since July 12 are: Hawaii [1], Illinois [4], Indiana [138], Maryland [12], Michigan [6], Minnesota [4], Ohio [107], Pennsylvania [11], West Virginia [3], and Wisconsin [20]. Sixteen H3N2v-associated hospitalizations and one H3N2v-associated death have been reported. The vast majority of cases have occurred after prolonged swine exposure, though instances of likely human-to-human transmission have been identified. At this time no ongoing human-to-human transmission has been identified.

As a result of enhanced surveillance activities for H3N2v, one infection with an influenza A (H1N1) variant (H1N1v) virus and three infections with influenza A (H1N2) variant (H1N2v) virus have been detected since July 2012, bringing the total number of variant influenza virus infections to 310.

Because of reporting schedules, state totals posted by CDC may not always be consistent with those reported by state health departments. If there is a discrepancy between state and CDC case counts, data from the state health department should be used as the most accurate number.

Early identification and investigation of human infections with novel influenza A viruses is critical in order to evaluate the extent of the outbreak and possible human-to-human transmission.
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[link to translate.google.com]
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09/28/2012 12:53 PM
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[link to www.promedmail.org]
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[link to www.wishtv.com]
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 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 24529943


Indy area sees major rise in cold, flu
Updated: Thursday, 27 Sep 2012, 11:00 AM EDT
Published : Thursday, 27 Sep 2012, 6:08 AM EDT

Walter Allen
INDIANAPOLIS (WISH) - IU Health, along with other health care providers, have seen a major uptick in patients admitted for respiratory illnesses.

A majority of those symptoms look the same cough, fever and sore throat.

ONLINE EXTRA | Compare cold and flu symptoms

The worst cases are infants and those who have underlying medical conditions like asthma, which could make it worse, requiring isolation.

Having seen such an increase in respiratory illnesses, IU Health is really encouraging everyone to get the flu vaccine.

IU Health says at its worst, the flu can kill hundreds of thousands and they say that getting the flu shot can decrease hospital visits by 50 to 60 percent.

To show how serious they are taking it this year, this is the first year all health care facilities in this area are requiring all employees to have the influenza vaccine.

"It shows that we care about patient safety above all else," Dr. Elaine Cox, specializing in infectious disease for IU Health, says. "Secondly, we all believe in influenza vaccinations. And thirdly, this is a joint effort between all health care systems. It doesn't matter where you work, it's part of the Indiana patient coalition initiative. They got everybody together for one cause and I think that underscores how important it is to health care."

The flu vaccine helps the individual fight the flu, and it also helps to protect those most vulnerable.

The Marion County Health Department will begin to offer flu shots next Monday and throughout the week at a number of locations.

The flu shot schedule is posted on the Marion County Health Department website: [link to www.mchd.com]

The flu shot hotline is 317-221-2121. Flu shots are $15, ages 2-18 are $10. Medicare and Medicaid are accepted.

sorry site closed down after i posted link
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To determine the extent to which influenza viruses jump between human and swine hosts, we undertook a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of pandemic A/H1N1/09 (H1N1pdm09) influenza virus genome sequence data. From this, we identified at least 49 human-to-swine transmission events that occurred globally during 2009-2011, thereby highlighting the ability of the H1N1pdm09 virus to transmit repeatedly from humans to swine, even following adaptive evolution in humans. Similarly, we identified at least 23 separate introductions of human seasonal (non-pandemic) H1 and H3 influenza viruses into swine globally since 1990. Overall, these results reveal the frequency with which swine are exposed to human influenza viruses, indicate that humans make a substantial contribution to the genetic diversity of influenza viruses in swine, and emphasize the need to improve biosecurity measures at the human-swine interface, including influenza vaccination of swine workers.
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Date: Thu 27 Sep 2012

From: Anne Winter [edited]





[Previously it was reported in ProMED-mail post: Influenza (91): Canada (ON) H1N1v, human case 20120926.1311060 that it had not been confirmed that the M gene of the pandemic H1N1 virus, which is also present in the swine flu viruses that have been causing human infections in the USA this summer 2012, was present in the Canadian isolate. In fact, the complete sequence had been obtained, and the relevant data are presented below. - Mod.CP]



* PCR and sequencing results of HA and NA showed that this virus is an H1N1 subtype, which is closely related to H1N1 swine triple reassortant viruses identified in the United States in 2011 and 2012



* Sequencing revealed that this H1N1 carries the M gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, as was found in the last 2 documented cases of H1N1v infection, in Wisconsin (December 2011) and Missouri (reported September 2012).



Based on the testing results from PHOL and NML, we conclude that this patient was infected with an influenza A H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus.



* The HA gene was found to have nucleotide sequence homologies of:

* 98.8 percent to the HA of the H1N1v reported in Missouri earlier this month [September 2012].

* 96.2 percent to the HA of the H1N1v reported in Wisconsin in December 2011

* 92 percent to the HA of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in the current seasonal influenza vaccine.



Based on data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2 H1N1v viruses (A/Wisconsin and A/Missouri) isolated from humans in the US in 2011 and 2012, separately, are closely related antigenically to A/California/7/2009 virus, which is a vaccine component of the currently available influenza vaccine. It is expected that the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine is likely to protect against the H1N1v influenza virus, although the seasonal influenza vaccine may not protect people against some other variant influenza viruses that are very different from currently circulating human influenza viruses.
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[link to guardianlv.com]
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 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 24529943


If you haven稚 checked the Center for Controlled Diseases website you might not know that this week CDC reported 12 additional human infections with influenza A (H3N2) variant* virus in 3 states: Hawaii (1 case), Ohio (10 cases) and Indiana (1 case). The H3N2v virus contains the M gene from the human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (2009 H1N1) virus, as have the previous 17 cases detected since July 2011. All of this week痴 reported cases occurred in people who had direct or indirect contact with swine prior to their illness. The 10 cases in Ohio were associated with attendance at a fair where reportedly ill swine were present. The H3N2v case reported by Indiana also occurred in a person who attended a fair where swine were present. CDC continues to recommend preventive actions people can take to make their fair experience a safe and healthy one.
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[link to www.cdc.gov]
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User ID: 24529943
United Kingdom
09/28/2012 01:23 PM
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Re: <<Advancing Bird Flu-H5N1...Now following MERS and Ebola approaching PANDEMICS>>>
AND hfhfhf FOR YOU ARKAY bumpbumpbump
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 24529943
United Kingdom
09/28/2012 01:32 PM
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Re: <<Advancing Bird Flu-H5N1...Now following MERS and Ebola approaching PANDEMICS>>>
[link to www.therepublic.com]
Seems to be no follow up on this
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 24641629
United Kingdom
09/29/2012 05:50 PM
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Re: <<Advancing Bird Flu-H5N1...Now following MERS and Ebola approaching PANDEMICS>>>
[link to www.scmp.com]

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