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The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !

 
Luisport

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06/28/2013 05:10 AM

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Energy shift? Popocatépetl volcano growing more violent, Philippine volcano shaken by 15 earthquakes

Posted on June 28, 2013by The Extinction Protocol

June 28, 2013 – MEXICO - Seismic activity has picked up, suggesting that the volcano could be headed for more vigorous activity soon. SO2 emissions on NOAA recent satellite data have been relatively high as well. A magnitude 3.6 volcanic quake occurred on Tuesday night 23:57 local time and was located SE of the crater at 2 km depth. Over 3 hours of low frequency and short amplitude tremor were recorded. An earthquake swarms occurred yesterday as well and another one seems to have started an hour ago. The rate of small to moderate steam and ash explosions was reported to about 2 per hour during yesterday, with ash plumes reaching up to 1-2 km height above the crater. Ashfall has been reported at Tepetlixpa and Ecatzingo. On 25 June, with the support of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Navy of México, a reconnaissance flight over Popocatepetl´s crater was carried out. It could be observed that the inner crater has grown to 250 m in diameter and 60 m depth, as a result of the explosions of recent days. No other changes could be seen. (CENAPRED) – Volcano Discovery

MANILA, Philippines – Growing unrest is being reported at Taal Volcano in Batangas. The volcano appears to becoming more agitated. It has been shaken by 15 volcanic earthquakes in the past 24 hours. According to the Philippine Volcanic and Seismology (Phivolcs), there was also a slight increase of water level in the crater of the volcano. Ground deformation is also being reported on one flank of the volcano. A 6 km exclusion zone has been set up around the volcano to protect locals from any sudden, unexpected eruptions from the volcano. –Philstar [link to theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Tohoku megaquake shows big tremors make volcanoes sink
18:00 30 June 2013 by Michael Marshall
Five Japanese volcanoes are a bit stouter than they were just a few years ago. Within a day of the 2011 megaquake, they shrank by up to 15 centimetres. The same thing happened to a string of Chilean volcanoes after a magnitude 8.8 quake ripped through the centre of the country in 2010...
Regardless of the mechanism, does the subsidence make volcanoes in the affected region more likely to erupt? Possibly. Tamsin Mather of the University of Oxford, who was not involved in the subsidence studies, has shown that big earthquakes slightly increase the frequency of such eruptions over the following 12 months.

"If you've got a volcano that's en route to an eruption, the earthquake can accelerate it," she says. None of the volcanoes affected by the Chile and Japan quakes has since erupted, probably because they were too stable for the quakes to trigger a blast.

"The reaction of the volcanoes looks like it's influenced by the state each volcano is in," says Mather.

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1857 (Japan) and 10.1038/NGEO1855 (Chile)
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Tohoku megaquake shows big tremors make volcanoes sink
18:00 30 June 2013 by Michael Marshall
Five Japanese volcanoes are a bit stouter than they were just a few years ago. Within a day of the 2011 megaquake, they shrank by up to 15 centimetres. The same thing happened to a string of Chilean volcanoes after a magnitude 8.8 quake ripped through the centre of the country in 2010...
Regardless of the mechanism, does the subsidence make volcanoes in the affected region more likely to erupt? Possibly. Tamsin Mather of the University of Oxford, who was not involved in the subsidence studies, has shown that big earthquakes slightly increase the frequency of such eruptions over the following 12 months.

"If you've got a volcano that's en route to an eruption, the earthquake can accelerate it," she says. None of the volcanoes affected by the Chile and Japan quakes has since erupted, probably because they were too stable for the quakes to trigger a blast.

"The reaction of the volcanoes looks like it's influenced by the state each volcano is in," says Mather.

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1857 (Japan) and 10.1038/NGEO1855 (Chile)
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42761670


from
[link to www.newscientist.com]
Anonymous Coward
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Volcanoes, explosions and ice
Why do volcanoes explode?

...The work on the pumice, ash and scree mountains of Iceland told us that adding meltwater to already-exploding rhyolite will produce lots of very fine ash, capable of being carried vast distances. This is bad news for aeroplanes. It also shows that the water will make the ash sticky, so the grains clump together and fall to the ground near the volcano. This is good news for the aeroplanes. Including this information in the computer models that predict where ash clouds will go will make their results more accurate.

The new evidence that gas is the main control on explosivity is probably also good news for aeroplanes. It means that subglacial rhyolite eruptions are much like rhyolite eruptions elsewhere...
[link to all-geo.org]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
John Seach 1 day
Magnitude 6.1 earthquake 15 km SW of Geureudong volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia.


Geureudong
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Geureudong Mountain
Elevation 2,885 m (9,465 ft)[1]
Listing Ultra
Ribu
Location
Location northern Sumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates 4°48′47″N 96°49′12″E / 4.813°N 96.82°E / 4.813; 96.82
Geology
Type stratovolcano
Last eruption 1937
Geureudong or Bur ni Geureudong or Bur ni Telong is a stratovolcanic complex in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The official name of the whole complex is confusing between the two adjacent volcanoes: Bur ni Geureudong and Bur ni Telong. Two other volcanic cones are Salah Nama and Pepanji, and there are small sediment hills.[2] Bur ni Geureudong has been eroded since the Pleistocene age, but has solfatara and hot springs on its flanks. Bur ni Telong is located in the south of Bur ni Geureudong. Bur ni Telong has active crater that lava flows are exposed in the southern flank.[1]
[link to en.wikipedia.org]

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI):
[link to www.volcano.si.edu]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Hekla
[link to www.heklubyggd.is]
[link to hraun.vedur.is]
[link to hraun.vedur.is]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Spectacular View of Etna from the International Space Station
November 5, 2002
[link to eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Oxford Sparks presents a visit to the Stromboli volcano. Find out more and read the science behind the animation at [link to www.oxfordsparks.net]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Insivumeh Guatemala 9 h
Volcan Santiaguito: Explosion moderada 06:17 horas, expulso columna gris a 3,100 msnm:
[link to pbs.twimg.com (secure)]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
On the lack of InSAR observations of magmatic deformation at Central American volcanoes

...We calculate that if magmatic volcano deformation were spread evenly across historically active volcanoes worldwide, the probability of none of Central America's 26 volcanoes deforming would be < 1%. The lack of magmatic deformation in Central America may be indicative of differences in magma storage relative to other well-studied continental arcs. The high proportion of basalts that ascend directly from depth relative to andesites stored in the shallow crust may limit the potential for high magnitude deformation. Magma stored in vertically elongated reservoirs and high parental melt volatile contents that result in bubble-rich, compressible magmas at shallow depths may also reduce surface deformation. We consider the measurement and analysis of a lack of deformation at active volcanoes to be essential for realizing the potential of regional scale InSAR surveys...
[link to onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
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07/04/2013 05:18 AM
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42761670


[link to hraun.vedur.is]
[link to www.ruv.is]
[link to www.livefromiceland.is]
Anonymous Coward
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to en.vedur.is]
Earthquake table Date Time Latitude Longitude Depth Magnitude Quality Location
Thursday
04.07.2013 10:46:17 64.657 -17.326 1.1 km 2.4 43.08 9.8 km E of Bardarbunga
Thursday
04.07.2013 10:46:16 64.634 -17.372 1.1 km 2.2 90.02 7.4 km E of Bardarbunga
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


cams!
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
Luisport

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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
July 7, 2013 – JAPAN - A possible small eruption occurred this morning. Tokyo VAAC received a (pilot) report of an ash plume rising to 7,000 ft (2.1 km) and drifting 40 nautical miles to the north of the small island. No ash could be detected on satellite images, and sometimes weather clouds are mistaken for ash plumes. On the other hand, the volcano has had relatively frequent small eruptions during the past centuries and new activity would not be a surprising event. The volcano’s last eruption was in 1968. –Volcano Discovery [link to theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com]
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07/08/2013 12:13 PM
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


cams!
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


[link to www.wired.com]
...An overflight of that vent on Sunday showed that a new lava dome has formed within the crater during the past week’s activity (see above), meaning a new sequence of dome growth (and eventual collapse) is in full swing. As magma rises up under the active vent, a plug of lava forms (as the lava dome). The pressure rises under the plug and it is eventually destroyed (either by collapse or explosion), leaving the magma underneath to feel the drop in pressure, prompting an explosive eruption. Once the vent is clear, new lava can begin to fill in the vent to form another new dome and the cycle continues.
This type of eruption is common at many arc-related volcanoes like Popocatepetl like Mount St. Helens, Soufriere Hills and Merapi. You can check out this USGS page on this same pattern that occurred at St. Helens after the catastrophic 1980 eruption or if you want to get cozy with a dome, check out this video of the dome at Mexico’s Colima taken in 2008 — rubbly piles of extruding lava within the main crater vent. The collapse of these domes can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable events at a volcano as the extrusion of the dome isn’t particularly violent, but the collapse can generate large pyroclastic flows. A collapse of a dome at Unzen killed the famed volcanologists Maurice and Katia Krafft and Harry Glicken in 1991. The dome at Popocatepetl likely needs to get larger so it extends out of the crater at the summit vent (see above) before it can generate a large dome collapse pyroclastic flow, but all of this means that Popocatepetl needs to be taken seriously in this new phase of activity.

Shot of a new lava dome seen on July 7, 2013 forming within the main crater at Mexico’s Popocat&#233;petl after a week on continuous strong ash emissions and explosions. Image: CENAPRED:
[link to www.wired.com]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to geology.about.com]

Expanding the VEI Scale of Volcanic Eruptions
By Andrew Alden, About.com Guide

Revising and Extending the VEI

...In 2013, Bruce Houghton and five coauthors brought up some problems with the VEI scale...
Under the Broughton proposal, explosive eruptions of any size could be assigned a consistent VEI number with no artificial breaks in the scale, just like the Richter scale. The earthquake scale is useful to a wide range of scientists. Some are studying the giant M 9 events like the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, while others need to measure the tiny M –2 crackles that accompany underground mining and drilling activities. The continuous magnitude scale has made it possible for seismologists to make and test ideas that span the whole range of earthquake sizes. A similar scale for eruptions may make similar advances possible in volcanology.

Sources:
Broughton et al., 2013, "Pushing the Volcanic Explosivity Index to its limit and beyond: Constraints from exceptionally weak explosive events at Kilauea in 2008," Geology v. 41, p. 627-630.
Newhall and Self, 1982, "The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism," Journal of Geophysical Research v. 87, p. 1231-1238.
Pyle, 1995, "Mass and energy budgets of explosive volcanic eruptions," Geophysical Research Letters v. 22, p. 563-566.
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


cams!
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


[link to www.wired.com]
...An overflight of that vent on Sunday showed that a new lava dome has formed within the crater during the past week’s activity (see above), meaning a new sequence of dome growth (and eventual collapse) is in full swing. As magma rises up under the active vent, a plug of lava forms (as the lava dome). The pressure rises under the plug and it is eventually destroyed (either by collapse or explosion), leaving the magma underneath to feel the drop in pressure, prompting an explosive eruption. Once the vent is clear, new lava can begin to fill in the vent to form another new dome and the cycle continues.
This type of eruption is common at many arc-related volcanoes like Popocatepetl like Mount St. Helens, Soufriere Hills and Merapi. You can check out this USGS page on this same pattern that occurred at St. Helens after the catastrophic 1980 eruption or if you want to get cozy with a dome, check out this video of the dome at Mexico’s Colima taken in 2008 — rubbly piles of extruding lava within the main crater vent. The collapse of these domes can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable events at a volcano as the extrusion of the dome isn’t particularly violent, but the collapse can generate large pyroclastic flows. A collapse of a dome at Unzen killed the famed volcanologists Maurice and Katia Krafft and Harry Glicken in 1991. The dome at Popocatepetl likely needs to get larger so it extends out of the crater at the summit vent (see above) before it can generate a large dome collapse pyroclastic flow, but all of this means that Popocatepetl needs to be taken seriously in this new phase of activity.

Shot of a new lava dome seen on July 7, 2013 forming within the main crater at Mexico’s Popocat&#233;petl after a week on continuous strong ash emissions and explosions. Image: CENAPRED:
[link to www.wired.com]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


[link to www.usatoday.com]

Mexican volcano forces U.S. airlines to cancel flights

Volcano Alert 29 min
Mexico Volcano Ash Grounds US Flights - Discovery News :
Anonymous Coward
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07/08/2013 12:22 PM
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


cams!
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


[link to www.wired.com]
...An overflight of that vent on Sunday showed that a new lava dome has formed within the crater during the past week’s activity (see above), meaning a new sequence of dome growth (and eventual collapse) is in full swing. As magma rises up under the active vent, a plug of lava forms (as the lava dome). The pressure rises under the plug and it is eventually destroyed (either by collapse or explosion), leaving the magma underneath to feel the drop in pressure, prompting an explosive eruption. Once the vent is clear, new lava can begin to fill in the vent to form another new dome and the cycle continues.
This type of eruption is common at many arc-related volcanoes like Popocatepetl like Mount St. Helens, Soufriere Hills and Merapi. You can check out this USGS page on this same pattern that occurred at St. Helens after the catastrophic 1980 eruption or if you want to get cozy with a dome, check out this video of the dome at Mexico’s Colima taken in 2008 — rubbly piles of extruding lava within the main crater vent. The collapse of these domes can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable events at a volcano as the extrusion of the dome isn’t particularly violent, but the collapse can generate large pyroclastic flows. A collapse of a dome at Unzen killed the famed volcanologists Maurice and Katia Krafft and Harry Glicken in 1991. The dome at Popocatepetl likely needs to get larger so it extends out of the crater at the summit vent (see above) before it can generate a large dome collapse pyroclastic flow, but all of this means that Popocatepetl needs to be taken seriously in this new phase of activity.

Shot of a new lava dome seen on July 7, 2013 forming within the main crater at Mexico’s Popocat&#233;petl after a week on continuous strong ash emissions and explosions. Image: CENAPRED:
[link to www.wired.com]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


[link to www.usatoday.com]

Mexican volcano forces U.S. airlines to cancel flights

Volcano Alert 29 min
Mexico Volcano Ash Grounds US Flights - Discovery News :
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


[link to news.discovery.com]
Mexico Volcano Ash Grounds US Flights
JUL 6, 2013 09:10 AM ET // BY AFP
...On Thursday, six US airlines had canceled some 60 flights, stranding 600 passengers, with many of them still looking for a way out of the Mexican capital Friday afternoon...
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[link to www.avo.alaska.edu]
ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Sunday, July 7, 2013 11:58 AM AKDT (Sunday, July 7, 2013 19:58 UTC)


VENIAMINOF VOLCANO (CAVW #1102-07-)
56°11'52" N 159°23'35" W, Summit Elevation 8225 ft (2507 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Nearly continuous, low-level volcanic tremor has been detected in seismic data throughout the past 24 hours. Satellite observations did not detect elevated surface temperatures at the intracaldera cone of Veniaminof volcano in cloudy images overnight. The seismic data indicate an ongoing low-level eruption characterized by effusion of lava and emission of minor amounts of ash and steam. Web camera images of the volcano from Perryville throughout the past 24 hours have been mostly obscured by clouds...
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Popocatepetl, Mexico

[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
July 03 20:50 h (July 04, 01:50 GMT)

From 17:42 h the monitoring system of Popocatepetl has been registred a episode of tremor within middle amplitude, it has been accompanied by persistent issue of a column of gas and ash up to 3.5 km in height (see image). Likewise there has been the issue of incandescent fragments deposited a short distance from the crater on the northeast side.
There have been reports of a light ashfall in Amecameca Mexico State. At the time of this update activity persists in the terms described above...

seismic now ohno
[link to 132.247.193.3:8080]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


cams!
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 42799132


[link to www.wired.com]
...An overflight of that vent on Sunday showed that a new lava dome has formed within the crater during the past week’s activity (see above), meaning a new sequence of dome growth (and eventual collapse) is in full swing. As magma rises up under the active vent, a plug of lava forms (as the lava dome). The pressure rises under the plug and it is eventually destroyed (either by collapse or explosion), leaving the magma underneath to feel the drop in pressure, prompting an explosive eruption. Once the vent is clear, new lava can begin to fill in the vent to form another new dome and the cycle continues.
This type of eruption is common at many arc-related volcanoes like Popocatepetl like Mount St. Helens, Soufriere Hills and Merapi. You can check out this USGS page on this same pattern that occurred at St. Helens after the catastrophic 1980 eruption or if you want to get cozy with a dome, check out this video of the dome at Mexico’s Colima taken in 2008 — rubbly piles of extruding lava within the main crater vent. The collapse of these domes can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable events at a volcano as the extrusion of the dome isn’t particularly violent, but the collapse can generate large pyroclastic flows. A collapse of a dome at Unzen killed the famed volcanologists Maurice and Katia Krafft and Harry Glicken in 1991. The dome at Popocatepetl likely needs to get larger so it extends out of the crater at the summit vent (see above) before it can generate a large dome collapse pyroclastic flow, but all of this means that Popocatepetl needs to be taken seriously in this new phase of activity.

Shot of a new lava dome seen on July 7, 2013 forming within the main crater at Mexico’s Popocat&#233;petl after a week on continuous strong ash emissions and explosions. Image: CENAPRED:
[link to www.wired.com]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]

July 08 11:00 h (July 08 16:00 GMT)

In the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano has recorded 11 hours of low frequency tremor and low amplitude which has been accompanied by a constant emission of steam, gas and light amounts of ash that has been directed mainly to the northwest. Additionally there have been several episodes of variable amplitude harmonic tremor which total 5 hours (see seismogram).

Also, there were two volcanotectonic earthquakes. The first yesterday at 15:19 h of magnitude 1.9, and the second today at 02:38 h of magnitude 2.4.

During some periods of the night incandescence was observed in the crater (see image 1). Also the emission of incandescent fragments near the crater rim (see image 2).

At the time of this report shows the volcano with an emission of steam, gas and ash that reached a height of 3 km above the crater rim and heads westward (see image 3).
images:
[link to www.cenapred.unam.mx]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to gees-talk.blogspot.co.uk]
Wednesday, 3 July 2013The trouble with lahars
by Dr Rebecca Williams

... Lahars, on the other hand, are flows made of water, volcanic material, and whatever else they can erode including soil and trees. The word lahar is Indonesian and roughly translates to volcanic mudflow. They range from dirty water to flows so laden with material that they have the consistency of concrete and can carry boulders the size of a house!
pic:
A boulder carried by a lahar from Volcan Cotopaxi in 1877. A much younger me for scale:
[link to 1.bp.blogspot.com]
...
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Rene Goad
RenVolcanoman 9 hours
Looks like an eruption occurring on Heard Island judging by this MODIS image (date 7/7/2013)
[link to pbs.twimg.com (secure)]

[link to volcano.si.edu]
Heard
Indian Ocean (southern)
Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption 2008
Latest activity:
1 May-7 May 2013
According to NASA Earth Observatory (EO) an image acquired on 7 April from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed that Mawson's Peak crater on Heard Island had filled and a lava flow had traveled down the SW flank. The lava flow was visible in an image acquired on 20 April and had slightly widened just below the summit.

Sources: NASA Earth Observatory
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to www.nature.com]

Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep

D. J. Ferguson,...
Nature Volume 499,
Date published 04 July 2013
...Here we show that the extensive magmatism during rifting along the southern Red Sea rift in Afar, a unique region of sub-aerial transition from continental to oceanic rifting, is driven by deep melting of hotter-than-normal asthenosphere. Petrogenetic modelling shows that melts are predominantly generated at depths greater than 80&#8201;kilometres, implying the existence of a thick upper thermo-mechanical boundary layer in a rift system approaching the point of plate rupture. Numerical modelling of rift development shows that when breakup occurs at the slow extension rates observed in Afar, the survival of a thick plate is an inevitable consequence of conductive cooling of the lithosphere, even when the underlying asthenosphere is hot. Sustained magmatic activity during rifting in Afar thus requires persistently high mantle temperatures, which would allow melting at high pressure beneath the thick plate. If extensive plate thinning does occur during breakup it must do so abruptly at a late stage, immediately before the formation of the new ocean basin...
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to www.nature.com]

Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep

D. J. Ferguson,...
Nature Volume 499,
Date published 04 July 2013
...Here we show that the extensive magmatism during rifting along the southern Red Sea rift in Afar, a unique region of sub-aerial transition from continental to oceanic rifting, is driven by deep melting of hotter-than-normal asthenosphere. Petrogenetic modelling shows that melts are predominantly generated at depths greater than 80&#8201;kilometres, implying the existence of a thick upper thermo-mechanical boundary layer in a rift system approaching the point of plate rupture. Numerical modelling of rift development shows that when breakup occurs at the slow extension rates observed in Afar, the survival of a thick plate is an inevitable consequence of conductive cooling of the lithosphere, even when the underlying asthenosphere is hot. Sustained magmatic activity during rifting in Afar thus requires persistently high mantle temperatures, which would allow melting at high pressure beneath the thick plate. If extensive plate thinning does occur during breakup it must do so abruptly at a late stage, immediately before the formation of the new ocean basin...
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


nice article
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
In Ethiopian Desert, a Window into Rifting of Africa
by Kevin Krajick | 7.8.2013 at 9:26am

...The study suggests that conventional ideas may be wrong. Past calculations done by scientists predict that the solid rock under the Afar should be stretching and thinning substantially as the continent tears apart; thus molten rock should not have far to travel to the surface. Led by David Ferguson, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, researchers analyzed the chemical makeup of lava chunks they collected from the Afar. They showed that magmas actually came from quite deep–greater than 80 kilometers, or 45 miles, within the earth’s mantle–and formed under extraordinarily high temperatures, above 1,450 degrees C, or 2,600 F.

This implies that magmas are generated by a long-lasting plume of mantle heat. It also indicates that magma must make its way up through a surprisingly thick lid of solid rock, called the lithosphere. This idea has been supported by some seismic images of the Afar subsurface.

Rifting here is fairly slow—one or two centimeters a year, or 0.4 to 0.8 inches, and this may partly explain why so much solid rock persists. As the lithosphere is pulled apart, it does stretch, crack and thin. However, because the process in this region takes so long, the base of the lithosphere has time to cool down by losing heat to the colder rock above. This keeps the relatively cold, brittle lithosphere thicker than would be expected, and counteracts stretching. Sometimes, though, magma suddenly spurts long distances to the surface, and the earth visibly cracks and pulls apart during spectacular rifting events. That includes a series of events that started in 2005, and was closely observed by scientists.

Parts of the rift have already sunk below sea level. In the distant future–maybe 10 million years from now–the process will advance so far that the Red Sea will break through and flood the region. A new sea will open up, whether or not there is anyone around to name it.
...
pic: In East Africa, earth’s crust is stretching and cracking, in a process called rifting. Here in the Afar region of northern Ethiopia, hundreds of faults and fissures have formed over time. (David Ferguson):
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
pic: This crevice opened in a matter of hours, during a sequence of very large earthquakes in September 2005. It formed in response to magma being injected into the shallow crust, and is still emitting volcanic gases. This injection of magma was the largest event of its kind to be observed by scientists. (Lorraine Field):
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
Euronews
Iceland mans its volcano front line
[link to www.euronews.com]
...Iceland’s active volcanoes could erupt at any time, so European scientists are closely monitoring them. They want to better understand what happens before, during, and after an eruption.

Freysteinn Sigmundsson, a geophysicist at the University of Iceland, and coordinator of the FutureVolc supersite project, explained their work...
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to www.nature.com]

Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep

D. J. Ferguson,...
Nature Volume 499,
Date published 04 July 2013
...Here we show that the extensive magmatism during rifting along the southern Red Sea rift in Afar, a unique region of sub-aerial transition from continental to oceanic rifting, is driven by deep melting of hotter-than-normal asthenosphere. Petrogenetic modelling shows that melts are predominantly generated at depths greater than 80&#8201;kilometres, implying the existence of a thick upper thermo-mechanical boundary layer in a rift system approaching the point of plate rupture. Numerical modelling of rift development shows that when breakup occurs at the slow extension rates observed in Afar, the survival of a thick plate is an inevitable consequence of conductive cooling of the lithosphere, even when the underlying asthenosphere is hot. Sustained magmatic activity during rifting in Afar thus requires persistently high mantle temperatures, which would allow melting at high pressure beneath the thick plate. If extensive plate thinning does occur during breakup it must do so abruptly at a late stage, immediately before the formation of the new ocean basin...
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


nice article
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
In Ethiopian Desert, a Window into Rifting of Africa
by Kevin Krajick | 7.8.2013 at 9:26am

...The study suggests that conventional ideas may be wrong. Past calculations done by scientists predict that the solid rock under the Afar should be stretching and thinning substantially as the continent tears apart; thus molten rock should not have far to travel to the surface. Led by David Ferguson, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, researchers analyzed the chemical makeup of lava chunks they collected from the Afar. They showed that magmas actually came from quite deep–greater than 80 kilometers, or 45 miles, within the earth’s mantle–and formed under extraordinarily high temperatures, above 1,450 degrees C, or 2,600 F.

This implies that magmas are generated by a long-lasting plume of mantle heat. It also indicates that magma must make its way up through a surprisingly thick lid of solid rock, called the lithosphere. This idea has been supported by some seismic images of the Afar subsurface.

Rifting here is fairly slow—one or two centimeters a year, or 0.4 to 0.8 inches, and this may partly explain why so much solid rock persists. As the lithosphere is pulled apart, it does stretch, crack and thin. However, because the process in this region takes so long, the base of the lithosphere has time to cool down by losing heat to the colder rock above. This keeps the relatively cold, brittle lithosphere thicker than would be expected, and counteracts stretching. Sometimes, though, magma suddenly spurts long distances to the surface, and the earth visibly cracks and pulls apart during spectacular rifting events. That includes a series of events that started in 2005, and was closely observed by scientists.

Parts of the rift have already sunk below sea level. In the distant future–maybe 10 million years from now–the process will advance so far that the Red Sea will break through and flood the region. A new sea will open up, whether or not there is anyone around to name it.
...
pic: In East Africa, earth’s crust is stretching and cracking, in a process called rifting. Here in the Afar region of northern Ethiopia, hundreds of faults and fissures have formed over time. (David Ferguson):
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
pic: This crevice opened in a matter of hours, during a sequence of very large earthquakes in September 2005. It formed in response to magma being injected into the shallow crust, and is still emitting volcanic gases. This injection of magma was the largest event of its kind to be observed by scientists. (Lorraine Field):
[link to blogs.ei.columbia.edu]
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 43031403


[link to volcanicdegassing.wordpress.com]
Sea-floor spreading, on land
...his new work shows that the compositions of geologically young lavas requires them to have formed relatively deep (greater than 80 km or so), and at relatively higher temperatures than expected for ‘normal’ mantle. This can only be reconciled with other geological and geophysical constraints if the plate beneath the active Afar rift is still relatively thick. This, in turn, is consistent with the idea that the slow rate of spreading at the rift means that plate remains thick because of conductive cooling, while volcanism persists because the mantle at depth is suffiiciently hot to partially melt at depths just a little deeper than the bottom of the plate. In turn, this fits in with ideas about the long-lasting and slowly waning influence of a ‘hot spot’ or plume beneath the region, which is the favoured contender for the burst of magmatism in the region about 30 million years ago.
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to firstlook.pnas.org]
Studying volcanic eruptions with aerial drones
Posted on July 8, 2013 by David Harris
In March of this year, David Pieri helped direct a half-dozen Dragon Eye unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—the same drones that the military uses for some reconnaissance missions—into the volcanic plume of the Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. By flying multiple UAVs at once, Pieri and his colleagues could track the chemical characteristics of many spots in the gas and ash clouds simultaneously. More importantly, the risk to human life was lessened...
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Etna preparing for a new paroxysm
[link to www.ct.ingv.it]
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Re: The monsters wakes up ! Katla Hekla Iceland Dead Zone and rift as uniform system ! A lot of others worldwide !
[link to www.volcano.si.edu]
Lengai, Ol Doinyo
Tanzania
Africa (eastern)
Stratovolcano
Last known eruption 2010

[link to oldoinyolengai.pbworks.com]
...
September 2012: Many thanks to Frank Moeckel and Wendy Blank for sending me the following report: "In September 2012 we visited the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai and the Lake Natron area. We (Frank Moeckel and my girl friend Wendy Blank) climbed the Oldoinyo Lengai on September 14 (23:00) to September 15 (06:30). We stay over night (September 15 to September 16) in a small camping tend at the south crater. Many nice and interesting rock samples we have collected. We have taken some photos and videos. We climbed down on the morning (September 16). On the bottom of the activ north crater we have seen fresh black natrocarbonatite lava and active vents. We heard boiling noise from the bottom of the north crater. Everywhere strong H2S smell...

[link to www.wired.com]
Michael Dalton • 2 days ago &#8722;
I was recently in Tanzania, and gathered what I could on Lengai. Apparently there were some earthquakes around Lengai last month that got people talking there. Local Masai said it feels like the ground had been move frequently similar to 2007. USGS had a few earthquakes listed but nothing more. I thought I felt few very slight ones in my house on the slopes Mt Meru. Anyone know if sub 4.0 can be detected there? I never seem to see anything less then 4.7's or 4.8's. Other people agree that they too have felt a lot of minor shaking.
A friend climbed the volcano and said there was strong sounds coming from in the crater. The typical carbonate sloshing. There was one active hornito that can be seen, but the crater was still largely out of view. No reports of any large flows recently.
...

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