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WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH

 
Anonymous Coward
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
CTV report 'emotional reading'

[link to www.stuff.co.nz]


LATEST: The brother of a woman killed in the Canterbury Television building collapse says the royal commission's report on the tragedy does not make life "any easier".

The report, which was released to the public at 3pm today, was given to families of all 115 victims over the weekend.

Maurice Gardiner, whose sister, Donna Manning, was killed, said that despite the report doing "what it's supposed to do", it did not make life "any easier".

"It obviously doesn't bring any of our family members back," he said.

"It doesn't give you any answers to why it was green-stickered or why it was even built. It just says it shouldn't be."

Gardiner said he received the report last week, and it had made for emotional reading.

"I've stopped reading, then picked it up another day," he said.

"Personally, as a builder, it does make me saddened to think the design, every part of that particular building, it was set to fail in this earthquake. That's the thing that was disappointing. It just wasn't done properly."

Gardiner said his family simply wanted lessons learnt from the tragedy.

"The whole world is watching what is happening in Christchurch," he said.

"As long as they learn from it and buildings are built stronger ... all of New Zealand is going to be a stronger place as a result. A lot of young builders and architects are going to be so well educated in seismic buildings, it can only be better."

Murray Grant, who lost wife Elizabeth Grant in the collapse of the six-storey building, said he was ''very happy'' with how the investigation was carried out.

''It's been very well done - there's not really any part of it I'm not happy with,'' he said.

''We're waiting now to hear what the Government is going to do about it. Whether they hold anybody accountable, that's what I'll be waiting for.''

Grant hoped the Government would look seriously into the design of the building and inspections after the initial earthquake.

''It wasn't what you'd call an act of God. The CTV building was a bad deal right through. It was bad from the day it was designed,'' he said.

''That's what makes me think that somebody should be held accountable for it.

"It was bad enough with the design and badly built, but it shouldn't have been occupied at the time. We would have had another 115 people around if it wasn't.''

Christchurch Girls' High School principal Prue Taylor, whose husband Brian Taylor died in the building, said that while ''nothing would bring the people back'', the investigation had been well handled.

''Speaking personally, I think the commission has done a wonderful job. I've been very impressed with the communication. It's been very sensitive,'' she said.

Taylor said the report had given her closure, and she had now had no unanswered questions about her late husband's death.

''I guess there will be things there that experts will still have questions in their minds about, but it can't drag on forever and at some point you have just got to draw a full stop, you know?'' she said.

"There's a lot of different layers here. I don't think there's any one person that can be held accountable.

''The city council had a part to play, the law ... even the people who complied with the code, and the design obviously had a huge impact.

"For me, it's a combination of a lot of things rather than the blame being laid at one person's feet.''

'Grim and sober' report

The royal commission's findings on the CTV building collapse make for "grim and sobering reading", Prime Minister John Key says.

It concludes the engineering design of the CTV building was deficient in a number of respects.

It also concludes the building should never have been issued with a building permit by the Christchurch City Council because its design did not comply with the standards of the time, and there were inadequacies in the construction of the building.

The findings, released today, would be little comfort to the friends and families of the 115 people who died in the collapse, Key said.

"Nothing will ever bring their loved ones back and we cannot dull their pain. My thoughts are with them as they continue to try to come to terms with their loss," he said.

The report does not come with an official Government response so the families could see the findings as soon as possible.

Families were given embargoed copies of the report before today's release, and Attorney-General Christopher Finlayson and Building and Construction Minister Maurice Williamson met some of them in Christchurch yesterday.

The Government would respond to the recommendations by mid-2013, Key said.

He welcomed findings on the management of buildings after an earthquake.

"The royal commission found that, despite some problems, overall the building safety evaluation process after the Canterbury earthquakes was well delivered, and the system and skills we have are adequate. It recommends some changes to improve the delivery of the system, which follow current international best practice."

Key thanked commissioners Justice Mark Cooper, Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. "They oversaw an inquiry which was incredibly broad and complex and involved a lot of technical detail."

The royal commission now ceases to exist, having completed the task set out in its terms of reference.
Anonymous Coward
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Plume rises from Ulawun volcano at Papua New Guinea

[link to thewatchers.adorraeli.com]
images of plume

Ulawun volcano is situated on the island of New Britain, the largest in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. It is one of the most active volcano of the archipelago, and also the highest (summit elevation of 2,334 meters). Ulawun volcano is also known as “the Father,” with the Bamus volcano to the southwest also known as “the South Son.”

A white steam and ash plume extended from the summit crater of the stratovolcano towards the northwest. The plume begins to broaden as it passes the southwestern coast of Lolobau Island approximately 23 kilometers downwind from its source. (Note the image is oriented such that north is towards the lower left)

The summit of Bamus is obscured by white cumulus clouds (not of volcanic origin) in this image. While Ulawun has been active since at least 1700, the most recent eruptive activity at Bamus occurred in the late 19th century. A large region of ocean surface highlighted by sunglint—sunlight reflecting off the water surface, lending it a mirror-like appearance—is visible to the north-northeast of Ulawun (image lower left).

A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of Ulawun volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Astronaut photograph ISS034-E-5496 was acquired on November 30, 2012, with a Nikon D2Xs digital camera using a 180 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 34 crew. It has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by William L. Stefanov, Jacobs/ESCG at NASA-JSC.
Anonymous Coward
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck Banda Sea, Indonesia

[link to thewatchers.adorraeli.com]

A 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck Banda Sea, Indonesia on December 10, 2012 at 16:53 UTC according to USGS and EMSC. Epicenter was located 229 km (142 miles) NW of Saumlaki, Indonesia and 338 km (210 miles) WSW of Tual, Indonesia at coordinates 6.522°S, 129.813°E. USGS measured depth at 157.7 km (98.0 miles). EMSC recorded depth at 162 km.

GDACS is reporting that this earthquake can have a low humanitarian impact based on the Magnitude and the affected population and their vulnerability. About 400 people are living within 400 km.

Magnitude 7.1
Date-Time
Monday, December 10, 2012 at 16:53:09 UTC
Tuesday, December 11, 2012 at 01:53:09 AM at epicenter
Location 6.522°S, 129.813°E
Depth 157.7 km (98.0 miles)
Region BANDA SEA
Distances 229 km (142 miles) NW of Saumlaki, Indonesia
338 km (210 miles) WSW of Tual, Indonesia
360 km (223 miles) SSE of Ambon, Indonesia
366 km (227 miles) SSE of Amahai, Indonesia
Location Uncertainty horizontal +/- 13.2 km (8.2 miles); depth +/- 6.8 km (4.2 miles)
Parameters NST=381, Nph=385, Dmin=230.4 km, Rmss=0.97 sec, Gp= 14°,
M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=A
Source
Magnitude: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Location: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Event ID usc000e7j6

Tectonic summary by USGS

Seismotectonics of the New Guinea Region and Vicinity

The Australia-Pacific plate boundary is over 4000 km long on the northern margin, from the Sunda (Java) trench in the west to the Solomon Islands in the east. The eastern section is over 2300 km long, extending west from northeast of the Australian continent and the Coral Sea until it intersects the east coast of Papua New Guinea. The boundary is dominated by the general northward subduction of the Australia plate.

Along the South Solomon trench, the Australia plate converges with the Pacific plate at a rate of approximately 95 mm/yr towards the east-northeast. Seismicity along the trench is dominantly related to subduction tectonics and large earthquakes are common: there have been 13 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded since 1900. On April 1, 2007, a M8.1 interplate megathrust earthquake occurred at the western end of the trench, generating a tsunami and killing at least 40 people. This was the third M8.1 megathrust event associated with this subduction zone in the past century; the other two occurred in 1939 and 1977.

Further east at the New Britain trench, the relative motions of several microplates surrounding the Australia-Pacific boundary, including north-south oriented seafloor spreading in the Woodlark Basin south of the Solomon Islands, maintain the general northward subduction of Australia-affiliated lithosphere beneath Pacific-affiliated lithosphere. Most of the large and great earthquakes east of New Guinea are related to this subduction; such earthquakes are particularly concentrated at the cusp of the trench south of New Ireland. 33 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded since 1900, including three shallow thrust fault M8.1 events in 1906, 1919, and 2007.

The western end of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary is perhaps the most complex portion of this boundary, extending 2000 km from Indonesia and the Banda Sea to eastern New Guinea. The boundary is dominantly convergent along an arc-continent collision segment spanning the width of New Guinea, but the regions near the edges of the impinging Australia continental margin also include relatively short segments of extensional, strike-slip and convergent deformation. The dominant convergence is accommodated by shortening and uplift across a 250-350 km-wide band of northern New Guinea, as well as by slow southward-verging subduction of the Pacific plate north of New Guinea at the New Guinea trench. Here, the Australia-Pacific plate relative velocity is approximately 110 mm/yr towards the northeast, leading to the 2-8 mm/yr uplift of the New Guinea Highlands.

Whereas the northern band of deformation is relatively diffuse east of the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea border, in western New Guinea there are at least two small (<100,000 km²) blocks of relatively undeformed lithosphere. The westernmost of these is the Birds Head Peninsula microplate in Indonesia’s West Papua province, bounded on the south by the Seram trench. The Seram trench was originally interpreted as an extreme bend in the Sunda subduction zone, but is now thought to represent a southward-verging subduction zone between Birds Head and the Banda Sea.

There have been 22 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded in the New Guinea region since 1900. The dominant earthquake mechanisms are thrust and strike slip, associated with the arc-continent collision and the relative motions between numerous local microplates. The largest earthquake in the region was a M8.2 shallow thrust fault event in the northern Papua province of Indonesia that killed 166 people in 1996.

The western portion of the northern Australia plate boundary extends approximately 4800 km from New Guinea to Sumatra and primarily separates Australia from the Eurasia plate, including the Sunda block. This portion is dominantly convergent and includes subduction at the Sunda (Java) trench, and a young arc-continent collision.

In the east, this boundary extends from the Kai Islands to Sumba along the Timor trough, offset from the Sunda trench by 250 km south of Sumba. Contrary to earlier tectonic models in which this trough was interpreted as a subduction feature continuous with the Sunda subduction zone, it is now thought to represent a subsiding deformational feature related to the collision of the Australia plate continental margin and the volcanic arc of the Eurasia plate, initiating in the last 5-8 Myr. Before collision began, the Sunda subduction zone extended eastward to at least the Kai Islands, evidenced by the presence of a northward-dipping zone of seismicity beneath Timor Leste. A more detailed examination of the seismic zone along it’s eastern segment reveals a gap in intermediate depth seismicity under Timor and seismic mechanisms that indicate an eastward propagating tear in the descending slab as the negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere detaches from positively buoyant continental lithosphere. On the surface, GPS measurements indicate that the region around Timor is currently no longer connected to the Eurasia plate, but instead is moving at nearly the same velocity as the Australia plate, another consequence of collision.

Large earthquakes in eastern Indonesia occur frequently but interplate megathrust events related to subduction are rare; this is likely due to the disconnection of the descending oceanic slab from the continental margin. There have been 9 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded from the Kai Islands to Sumba since 1900. The largest was the great Banda Sea earthquake of 1938 (M8.5) an intermediate depth thrust faulting event that did not cause significant loss of life. More information on regional seismicity and tectonics
Anonymous Coward
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Tornadoes – how frequently do they hit New Zealand?

[link to www.niwa.co.nz]

6 December 2012 - 4:56pm
Science Centres: Climate, Natural Hazards

Tornadoes, like the one that hit Auckland's western suburbs today, are relatively rare events in New Zealand.

On average there are around seven moderate to strong tornado events reported in New Zealand each year.

NIWA meteorologist, Dr Richard Turner, says "fatalities associated with tornadoes are rare in New Zealand, with the most recent cases being the Albany tornado last year, which killed 1 person, and a tornado near Waitara in August 2004 which killed 2 people."

"Auckland is hit by a tornado on average less than once per year, but there is considerable variability from year to year with some years getting none," says Dr Turner.

New Zealand tornadoes are neither as common nor as destructive as those that occur over the plains of the United States, but even small scale tornadoes, like today's event can cause damage, injury and even deaths. The west coast of the South Island and the North Island coast from Taranaki to Northland have been particularly affected by tornadoes in the past.

Tornadoes in New Zealand are usually around a few tens of metres wide and have tracks of just a couple of kilometres. They are extremely localised and the damage is very confined to the actual tornado itself.

A tornado will typically last for a few minutes, track across the land for 2 to 5 kilometres and will have a diameter of 20 to 100 metres. Wind speeds are in the order of 115 to 180 km/h. At the more extreme end, some tornadoes track for over 100 kilometres, are over 1 kilometer wide and have winds up to 480 km/h – such tornadoes are extremely rare, anywhere in the world.

Dr Turner says "In New Zealand most tornadoes are associated with pre-frontal squall lines - bands of thunderstorms embedded in strong unstable pre-frontal northwesterly flow."

"The thunderstorms have very strong updrafts and if these occur in an environment in which the wind directions rotate as the air rises, the updraft can start to spin and a mesocyclone can form. It is from these mesocylcones, that can be as little as 1-2 kilometres across, that tornadoes are spawned."

NIWA maintains a catalogue of major weather events in New Zealand over the last 200 years called the New Zealand Historic Weather Events Catalogue.

The information has been collated from newspaper reports, journals, books and databases kindly provided by various organisations and individuals. For each event we identify the regions affected, the hazards types associated with the event and the resulting impacts.

The most damaging and lethal tornado in New Zealand occurred at Frankton (Hamilton) on 25 August, 1948. The tornado carved a 100–200 m swath through the suburb, causing 3 deaths, 12 injuries, damaging 150 houses and 50 businesses with an overall damage cost of $60 million.

The most recent events occurred on the west coast of the North Island, when a swarm of at least 12 tornadoes hit the Taranaki Coast on Wednesday the 4th and Thursday the 5th of July 2007 causing widespread damage in the region.

Oakura, a town 12 km southwest of New Plymouth was most affected. Roughly 50 houses suffered major damage, some of it irreparable, when two tornadoes ripped through the town.

Last year, a tornado in the Auckland suburb of Albany killed one person, sent cars airborne and did about $10 million in damage over a 15 km path.

Many other tornadoes in remote rural areas will be unreported.

Current research at NIWA is investigating very high resolution weather forecast models (which demand huge computational resources) ability to predict the occurrence of mesocyclones. If successful, this could potentially aid forecasters in their ability to identify mesocyclone formation between 6 and 12 hours in advance, increasing warning times.
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
MONOWAI SEAMOUNT, Kermadec Islands (SW Pacific)

25.887°S, 177.188°W; summit elev. -132 m

According to Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS) in a media release on 11 August, the Laboratoire de Géophysique (Papeete, Tahiti) reported that seismographs in Rarotonga recorded eruptive activity at Monowai seamount on 3 August. The activity then stopped overnight.

Geologic summary: Monowai seamount, also known as Orion seamount, rises to within 100 m of the sea surface about halfway between the Kermadec and Tonga island groups. The volcano lies at the southern end of the Tonga Ridge and is slightly offset from the Kermadec volcanoes. Small parasitic cones occur on the north and west flanks of the basaltic submarine volcano, which rises from a depth of about 1500 m and was named for one of the New Zealand Navy bathymetric survey ships that documented its morphology. A large 8.5 x 11 km wide submarine caldera with a depth of more than 1500 m lies to the NNE. Numerous eruptions from Monowai have been detected from submarine acoustic signals since it was first recognized as a volcano in 1977. A shoal that had been reported in 1944 may have been a pumice raft or water disturbance due to degassing. Surface observations have included water discoloration, vigorous gas bubbling, and areas of upwelling water, sometimes accompanied by rumbling noises.

[link to thewatchers.adorraeli.com]
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
K-Ar ages of some volcanic rocks from the Cook and Austral Islands

1U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025
2Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California 92037
3Geological Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California 92037
4Present address: (Jarrard) Department of Geology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106; (Clague) U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025.
Abstract

K-Ar age measurements on 19 volcanic rocks from Rurutu, Mangaia, Rarotonga, and Aitutaki in the Cook-Austral chain do not show a systematic increase in the age of the volcanoes to the west-northwest away from Macdonald Seamount as predicted by the melting-spot hypothesis and suggested by geomorphic evidence. Ages determined for alkalic basalt samples from Rurutu range from 1.02 to 1.09 m.y., for Mangaia from 16.6 to 18.9 m.y., and for Aitutaki from 0.66 to 0.77 m.y. Two distinct periods of volcanism on Rarotonga were dated at 1.8 and 1.2 m.y. B.P. The relation between the dated units and the main shield-building stage of these volcanoes is uncertain and will remain so until better data on the eruption history and mode of formation of volcanoes in the chain are available.

[link to gsabulletin.gsapubs.org]
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According to Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS) in a media release on 11 August, the Laboratoire de Géophysique (Papeete, Tahiti) reported that seismographs in Rarotonga recorded eruptive activity at Monowai seamount on 3 August. The activity then stopped overnight. See also the article we published on the massive amounts of pumice found in the greater Kermadec Islands area.

MVO reported that during 3-10 August activity at the Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) lava dome was mostly at a low level. The seismic network detected two small swarms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes on 7 and 8 August. Scientists at MVO observed a period of ash venting that began at 1700 on 8 August, less than two hours after the second swarm. Roaring sounds were heard at the same time. The ash plume drifted W over Plymouth at an altitude of about 1 km (3,280 ft) a.s.l., and a small amount of ashfall was reported by a fisherman offshore. The source of the venting appeared to be the gas vent in the floor of the 11 February 2010 collapse scar, and not the crater created on 23 March 2012.
On 9 August the inside of the collapse scar was partially visible during a helicopter flight. Fumarolic activity in the 23 March crater had increased compared to two weeks ago, and some other fumaroles were also more active. A change in wind direction shifted the volcanic plume N for much of the day and the odor of volcanic gas was noticeable in some inhabited areas. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
as butterfly pointed out recently, we need to be watching the northland graphs, a lot of activity happening up there

[link to www.geonet.org.nz]
Luisport

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12/11/2012 03:37 PM

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Thread: Japan aftershock upgraded to M7.4 — Gov’t now says it was 2 quakes at same time
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH


hiya luis

yeah, i noticed that thread

also matrix had a thread about a possible paraguay quake that may have occured, but wasnt listed anywhere, here is the data from it:


2012-12-10 17:09:22.1 23.16 S 58.11 W 183 mb 6.2 A PARAGUAY BEO
2012-12-10 17:06 M THE
2012-12-10 17:06 M MCSM
2012-12-10 17:06 M LVV
2012-12-10 17:06 M BUC
2012-12-10 17:06 A MOLD
2012-12-10 17:05 10 M KAN
2012-12-10 17:00:13.0 24.58 S 4.87 E 10 mb 6.4 A SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN BEO
Anonymous Coward
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
there is an unusual spike on the taupo volcano graphs

[link to www.geonet.org.nz]

i cant see any correlating spikes on any other nz volcan graphs

the closest is these spikes on the rarotonga ones, but they dont exactly match up
[link to www.geonet.org.nz]
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
4.1 05:28:06 Wed 12 Dec 2012 Depth: 170.1 km

3.2 02:54:52 Wed 12 Dec 2012 Depth: 101.4 km

3.7 02:46:16 Wed 12 Dec 2012 Depth: 337.5 km

3.2 07:10:20 Tue 11 Dec 2012 Depth: 25.0 km

3.4 00:07:02 Tue 11 Dec 2012 Depth: 178.4 km

3.8 15:24:07 Mon 10 Dec 2012 Depth: 35.1 km

3.6 09:56:53 Mon 10 Dec 2012 Depth: 314.4 km

3.9 03:45:38 Mon 10 Dec 2012 Depth: 298.2 km

3.0 02:50:16 Mon 10 Dec 2012 Depth: 167.4 km

3.1 18:12:03 Sun 09 Dec 2012 Depth: 95.7 km

4.7 01:26:31 Sun 09 Dec 2012 Depth: 15.8 km

3.3 07:24:01 Sat 08 Dec 2012 Depth: 156.2 km

5.8 07:19:06 Sat 08 Dec 2012 Depth: 174.6 km

3.2 03:25:46 Sat 08 Dec 2012 Depth: 18.7 km

4.1 21:29:41 Fri 07 Dec 2012 Depth: 408.1 km

3.6 21:02:14 Fri 07 Dec 2012 Depth: 244.1 km

3.6 17:36:01 Fri 07 Dec 2012 Depth: 10.0 km

3.7 07:31:54 Fri 07 Dec 2012 Depth: 27.0 km

map to see locations
[link to quakemap.co.nz]

if you look at the map, you will see that there are a lot of quakes occuring between tauranga and kermadec atm...
 Quoting: Tauranga

 Quoting: Tauranga
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Volcanic Alert Bulletin RUA-2012/05 - Ruapehu Volcano
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12 December 2012, 11:15 am - Ruapehu heightened unrest continues; Volcanic Alert remains at Level 1; Aviation Colour Code remains Yellow
Following a thorough review of recent monitoring data GNS Science has confirmed that it believes Ruapehu remains at a heightened level of unrest and that an eruption is more likely than normal.

GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly said, “Our analysis is still showing higher than normal temperatures beneath the crater lake. We think this reflects a partially sealed zone a few hundred metres beneath the lake which might be causing a pressure build up behind it. That pressure would make an eruption more likely than normal.”.

“It doesn't mean that an eruption is inevitable”, said Dr Jolly. “If the sealed zone fails suddenly an eruption could occur, probably with little or no warning. If it fails more gradually then the pressure would probably be released more slowly and the likelihood of an eruption would revert to normal”.

“We never have the whole story so there is always uncertainty in our assessment of what might happen at volcanoes. It's like detective work without all the clues. But when we see something that might increase the chance of an eruption we have to be more cautious”, said Dr Jolly.

The crater lake is quiet and its temperature has remained relatively low, 20 - 25 degrees Celsius, since March. Our understanding of the situation is consistent with these observations.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor Ruapehu through the GeoNet project.

Background
Eruptions in 1988, 2006, and 2007 are believed to have occurred as a result of sudden failure of a seal beneath the crater lake.

Small earthquakes 3-5 km beneath the crater lake in late-October and early-November have now stopped. It is not clear if those earthquakes were related to the high temperatures estimated a few hundred metres beneath the lake.


GNS Science has a monitoring site at the crater lake which regularly sends back the temperature of the lake water.

The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 1 indicates a departure from typical background surface activity.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Yellow indicates that a volcano is experiencing signs of elevated unrest above known background levels.

Brad Scott, Steven Sherburn
Volcanologists

[link to info.geonet.org.nz]
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Volcanic Alert Bulletin TON-2012/36 - Tongariro Volcano
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11 December 2012, 4:45pm - Prominent gas discharge at Tongariro, but no eruptive activity; Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1; Aviation Colour Code remains Yellow
Despite continued gas discharge that has been very noticeable over the last few days, Tongariro has not erupted since the explosion on 21 November. However, because of the current volcanic unrest a substantial possibility of further eruptions remains over the next few months.

GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott said, “After the second eruption in November we now have to consider the possibility that Tongariro might have entered an eruptive episode and this unrest could continue for several months. Within an episode Tongariro might quietly discharge steam most of the time, but occasionally have small eruptions with little or no warning. There was a similar episode of activity in the 1890s”.

GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly said, “There is still a lot we don't know about the recent activity and this means it is difficult to be certain what will happen over the next few months. Unfortunately with active volcanoes nothing is black and white and our best assessments still have a lot of uncertainty”.

“What we can say is that eruptions substantially larger than that on 6 August should give us some warning signs and at the moment we don't see any such signs ”, said Dr Jolly. In recent days GNS Science have received several reports of possible eruptions, but these have been normal steam discharge coupled with fine weather and light winds making for a prominent steam and gas plume.

There has been only minor seismic activity at Tongariro since 21 November, and no volcanic gas measurements last week due to poor weather and high winds. Gas may continue to be smelt downwind from Tongariro and be a minor irritant.

Background
The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 1 indicates volcanic unrest, with departures from background levels.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Yellow indicates that volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored.

Brad Scott, Steven Sherburn
Volcanologists

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Volcanic Alert Bulletin WI-2012/16 - White Island Volcano
Skip to end of metadataGo to start of metadata
12 December 2012, 1:30 pm - Spiny lava dome – a new and unusual style of eruptive activity at White Island; Volcanic Alert is raised to Level 2; Aviation Colour Code changed to Orange

image at link
White Island showing a wide view of the active crater area. The lava dome is at the base of the prominent steam plume on the right side. The larger steam plume on the left side comes from a hot lake.

image at link
A close up view of the dome. The dome is made of thick, relatively cool and congealed lava and has prominent spines. The dome is about 20 – 30 metres across. In the foregrouond is a small, cold lake.

image at link
A compiled image showing the wide and close up views of the active crater area and the dome.
GNS Science volcanologists have noticed a spiny lava dome at White Island in an existing small crater formed as a result of eruptions in August. The Volcanic Alert Level has been raised to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code to Orange.

“On Monday we were able to see a spiny lava dome that has grown in a crater formed by an eruption on 5 August. We were really lucky the steam was not too thick and got great views. The dome is probably 20 – 30 metres across and has spines sticking up. In more than 30 years visiting White Island I've never seen anything like it”, said GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott.

“If you imagine a volcano is like a tube of toothpaste then a lava dome is like the congealed, dried toothpaste that has come out of the tube. It doesn't move like a lava flow but grows from the inside as new magma comes up and pushes the already cooled magma upwards and outwards” said Mr Scott.

Comments from tour operators at White Island suggest the dome may have been visible for two weeks, but not as clearly as Monday. How long the dome has been growing is unknown, but possibly since the ash eruption in early August.


Lava domes are usually formed by magma that has lost most of its gases so that it is very sticky. This causes the magma to pile up over the volcanic event and form a dome. Lava domes are common at some volcanoes, but have never been seen before at White Island. Magma last reached the surface at White Island in 2000. At that time it was erupted explosively as molten rocks called volcanic bombs, rather than forming a dome.

“We've raised the Volcanic Alert Level and Aviation Colour Code to reflect the new style of eruptive activity”, said GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly. “Our concern is that lava dome growth can be accompanied by explosive eruptions and could impact people on the island. We need to see if the dome is continuing to grow. If it's not growing then we will be less concerned”.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor White Island through the GeoNet project.

Background
The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 2 indicates minor eruptive activity.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Orange indicates that a volcanic eruption is under way with no or minor ash emission.

Volcanoes can erupt in many different ways. They can erupt explosively like Tongariro earlier this year when rocks and ash were hurled into the sky. They can erupt effusively with lava flows like Ngauruhoe in 1954 or in Hawaii. A lava dome is a type of effusive eruption.

Brad Scott, Steven Sherburn
Volcanologists

[link to info.geonet.org.nz]
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Volcanic Alert Bulletin RUA-2012/05 - Ruapehu Volcano
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12 December 2012, 11:15 am - Ruapehu heightened unrest continues; Volcanic Alert remains at Level 1; Aviation Colour Code remains Yellow
Following a thorough review of recent monitoring data GNS Science has confirmed that it believes Ruapehu remains at a heightened level of unrest and that an eruption is more likely than normal.

GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly said, “Our analysis is still showing higher than normal temperatures beneath the crater lake. We think this reflects a partially sealed zone a few hundred metres beneath the lake which might be causing a pressure build up behind it. That pressure would make an eruption more likely than normal.”.

“It doesn't mean that an eruption is inevitable”, said Dr Jolly. “If the sealed zone fails suddenly an eruption could occur, probably with little or no warning. If it fails more gradually then the pressure would probably be released more slowly and the likelihood of an eruption would revert to normal”.

“We never have the whole story so there is always uncertainty in our assessment of what might happen at volcanoes. It's like detective work without all the clues. But when we see something that might increase the chance of an eruption we have to be more cautious”, said Dr Jolly.

The crater lake is quiet and its temperature has remained relatively low, 20 - 25 degrees Celsius, since March. Our understanding of the situation is consistent with these observations.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor Ruapehu through the GeoNet project.

Background
Eruptions in 1988, 2006, and 2007 are believed to have occurred as a result of sudden failure of a seal beneath the crater lake.

Small earthquakes 3-5 km beneath the crater lake in late-October and early-November have now stopped. It is not clear if those earthquakes were related to the high temperatures estimated a few hundred metres beneath the lake.


GNS Science has a monitoring site at the crater lake which regularly sends back the temperature of the lake water.

The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 1 indicates a departure from typical background surface activity.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Yellow indicates that a volcano is experiencing signs of elevated unrest above known background levels.

Brad Scott, Steven Sherburn
Volcanologists

[link to info.geonet.org.nz]
 Quoting: Tauranga


siren2siren2siren2
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Volcanic Alert Bulletin WI-2012/16 - White Island Volcano
Skip to end of metadataGo to start of metadata
12 December 2012, 1:30 pm - Spiny lava dome – a new and unusual style of eruptive activity at White Island; Volcanic Alert is raised to Level 2; Aviation Colour Code changed to Orange

image at link
White Island showing a wide view of the active crater area. The lava dome is at the base of the prominent steam plume on the right side. The larger steam plume on the left side comes from a hot lake.

image at link
A close up view of the dome. The dome is made of thick, relatively cool and congealed lava and has prominent spines. The dome is about 20 – 30 metres across. In the foregrouond is a small, cold lake.

image at link
A compiled image showing the wide and close up views of the active crater area and the dome.
GNS Science volcanologists have noticed a spiny lava dome at White Island in an existing small crater formed as a result of eruptions in August. The Volcanic Alert Level has been raised to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code to Orange.

“On Monday we were able to see a spiny lava dome that has grown in a crater formed by an eruption on 5 August. We were really lucky the steam was not too thick and got great views. The dome is probably 20 – 30 metres across and has spines sticking up. In more than 30 years visiting White Island I've never seen anything like it”, said GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott.

“If you imagine a volcano is like a tube of toothpaste then a lava dome is like the congealed, dried toothpaste that has come out of the tube. It doesn't move like a lava flow but grows from the inside as new magma comes up and pushes the already cooled magma upwards and outwards” said Mr Scott.

Comments from tour operators at White Island suggest the dome may have been visible for two weeks, but not as clearly as Monday. How long the dome has been growing is unknown, but possibly since the ash eruption in early August.


Lava domes are usually formed by magma that has lost most of its gases so that it is very sticky. This causes the magma to pile up over the volcanic event and form a dome. Lava domes are common at some volcanoes, but have never been seen before at White Island. Magma last reached the surface at White Island in 2000. At that time it was erupted explosively as molten rocks called volcanic bombs, rather than forming a dome.

“We've raised the Volcanic Alert Level and Aviation Colour Code to reflect the new style of eruptive activity”, said GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly. “Our concern is that lava dome growth can be accompanied by explosive eruptions and could impact people on the island. We need to see if the dome is continuing to grow. If it's not growing then we will be less concerned”.

GNS Science continues to closely monitor White Island through the GeoNet project.

Background
The Volcanic Alert Level ranges from 0 to 5 and defines the current status at a volcano. Level 2 indicates minor eruptive activity.

Aviation Colour Codes are based on four colours and are intended for quick reference only in the international civil aviation community. Code Orange indicates that a volcanic eruption is under way with no or minor ash emission.

Volcanoes can erupt in many different ways. They can erupt explosively like Tongariro earlier this year when rocks and ash were hurled into the sky. They can erupt effusively with lava flows like Ngauruhoe in 1954 or in Hawaii. A lava dome is a type of effusive eruption.

Brad Scott, Steven Sherburn
Volcanologists

[link to info.geonet.org.nz]


 Quoting: Tauranga


siren2siren2siren2
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
White Island volcanic alert level raised

[link to www.nzherald.co.nz]
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Lava Dome - John Seach

A lava dome is a mound of volcanic rock extruded from a volcano. The lava piles into a heap rather than flowing away. Diameters of domes range from a few metres to several kilometers. They can be up to 1000 m high.

Types of Lava Domes
1) Spiny domes (Pelean).
These are the steepest domes with a smooth surface and vertical spines.

2) Blocky domes.
These are composed of distince lobes which erupt sequentially from a vent.

3) Platy domes.
These have a low profile which is determined by local topography.

One of the main hazard from domes are explosions and collapse. Viscous lava in the dome can allow high pressure to build, resulting in explosive eruptions. Dome collapse under the weight of gravity can result in pyroclastiv flows, one of the most deadly types of volcanic eruption.

Causes of partial dome collapse include rain, gas overpressurisation, and over-steepening.


Examples of volcanoes with domes
Mt St Helens (USA), Merapi (Indonesia), Gunung Ranakah (Indonesia), Nigata-yake-yama (Japan), Nii-jima (Japan), Nipesotsu-upepesank (Japan), Augustine (Alaska), El Chichon (Mexico), Micotrin (Caribbean), Methana (Greece), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat).

[link to www.volcanolive.com]
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DESCRIPTION:
Lava Domes, Volcanic Domes, Composite Domes

From: Hoblitt, Miller, and Scott, 1987, Volcanic Hazards with Regard to Siting Nuclear-Power Plants in the Pacific Northwest, USGS Open-File Report 87-297
Volcanic domes are mounds that form when viscous lava is erupted slowly and piles up over the vent, rather than moving away as a lava flow. The sides of most domes are very steep and typically are mantled with unstable rock debris formed during or shortly after dome emplacement. Most domes are composed of silica-rich lava which may contain enough pressurized gas to cause explosions during dome extrusion.
The direct effects of dome eruption include burial or disruption of the preexisting ground surface by the dome itself and burial of adjacent areas by rock debris shed from the dome. Because of their high temperatures, domes may start fires if they are erupted in forested areas.
Domes are extruded so slowly that they can be avoided by people, but they may endanger man-made structures that cannot be moved. The principal hazard associated with domes is from pyroclastic flows produced by explosions or collapses. Such pyroclastic flows can occur without warning during active dome growth and can move very rapidly, endangering life and property up to 20 kilometers from their sources. Such pyroclastic flows can also cause lahars if they are erupted onto snow and ice or incorporate water during movement.
From: Foxworthy and Hill, 1982, Volcanic Eruption of 1980 at Mount St. Helens: The First 100 Days, USGS Professional Paper 1249
Dome: A steep-sided mass of viscous (doughy) lava extruded from a volcanic vent, often circular in plan view and spiny, rounded, or flat on top. Its surface is often rough and blocky as a result of fragmentation of the cooler, outer crust during growth of the dome.
From: Miller, 1989, Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California: U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1847
Volcanic domes are masses of solid rock that are formed when viscous lava is erupted slowly from a vent. If the lava is viscous enough, it will pile up above the vent to form a dome rather than move away as a lava flow. The sides of most domes are very steep and typically are mantled with unstable rock debris formed during or shortly after dome emplacement. Most domes are composed of silica-rich lavas that have a lower gas content than do the lavas erupted earlier in the same eruptive sequence; nevertheless, some dome lavas still contain enough gas to cause explosions within a dome as it is being formed.
From: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication
Volcanic or lava domes are formed by relatively small, bulbous masses of lava too viscous to flow any great distance; consequently, on extrusion, the lava piles over and around its vent. A dome grows largely by expansion from within. As it grows its outer surface cools and hardens, then shatters, spilling loose fragments down its sides. Some domes form craggy knobs of spines over the volcanic vent, whereas others form short, steep-sided lava flows known as "coulees." Volcanic domes commonly occur within the craters of on the flanks of large composite volcanoes.
From: Myers, et.al., 1997, What are Volcano Hazards?: USGS Fact Sheet 002-97
Molten rock (magma) that pours or oozes onto the Earth's surface is called lava and forms lava flows. The higher a lava's content of silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2), the less easily it flows. For example, low-silica basalt lava can form fast-moving (10 to 30 miles per hour) streams or can spread out in broad thin sheets up to several miles wide. Since 1983, Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaii has erupted basalt lava flows that have destroyed more than 200 houses and severed the nearby coastal highway. In contrast, flows of higher-silica andesite and dacite lava tend to be thick and sluggish, traveling only short distances from a vent. Dacite and rhyolite lavas often squeeze out of a vent to form irregular mounds called lava domes. Between 1980 and 1986, a dacite lava dome at Mount St. Helens grew to about 1,000 feet high and 3,500 feet across.

[link to vulcan.wr.usgs.gov]
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Dangers of Lava Domes


While one could easily outpace the eruption and growth of a lava dome, some extreme hazards do exist as the result of lava domes. When lava domes are growth rapidly and becoming unstable they will often collapse and spawn large and deadly pyroclastic density currents. In fact, pyroclastic flows due to lava dome collapse have been responsible for many of the largest volcanic disasters in history, including the 1902 destruction of St. Pierre on the island of Martinique. On May 8, 1902 the large and growing lava dome at Mount Pelée collapsed sending a large flow into the capital city of St. Pierre, killing all but two of the citizens.

This was scientists’ first experience with pyroclastic density currents, and while many lessons were learned that day, and have been learned since, people continue to be at risk from lava dome collapse spawned PDCs. Those especially at risk are scientists working near or on the volcano, and local community members whose homes could potentially be build on the flanks of an active volcano. It is imperative that we continue to try to understand lava dome dynamics so that we can better understand and work to mitigate the risk posed to people by lava dome collapse.

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Scientists keeping tabs on Ruapehu, White Island

[link to www.stuff.co.nz]

A rare "lava dome" has formed around the crater of New Zealand's most active volcano, as scientists raise the volcanic watch level on White Island.

A lava dome is when magma, which has lost much of its gas, bubbles out of the crater of a volcano.

It cools quickly and builds up from the bottom. GNS scientists likened it to "congealed toothpaste" found round the edge of the tube.

The Bay of Plenty volcano is New Zealand's most active and since a rating system has been in place, it has never rested at zero.

GNS today raised its alert level to two, indicating there had been minor eruptive activity.


Constant plumes of steam on the island generally made it difficult to see anything close to the crater, but GNS scientists said conditions on Monday allowed them to get a closer look.

Vulcanologist Brad Scott said he had "never seen anything like it" in his 30 years visiting the island.

"We were really lucky the steam was not too thick and got great views. The dome is probably 20-30 metres across and has spines sticking up."

It is thought the lava dome was a result of an ash eruption recorded on August 5.

Scientists also today confirmed Ruapehu remains at a heightened level of unrest and that an eruption is "more likely than normal".

GNS Science head vulcanologist Gill Jolly said analysis was still showing higher than normal temperatures beneath the crater lake.

"We think this reflects a partially sealed zone a few hundred metres beneath the lake which might be causing a pressure build up behind it. That pressure would make an eruption more likely than normal."

It doesn't mean that an eruption is inevitable, Jolly said.

"If the sealed zone fails suddenly an eruption could occur, probably with little or no warning. If it fails more gradually then the pressure would probably be released more slowly and the likelihood of an eruption would revert to normal."

Eruptions in 1988, 2006 and 2007 are believed to have occurred as a result of sudden failure of a seal beneath the crater lake.

"We never have the whole story so there is always uncertainty in our assessment of what might happen at volcanoes.

"It's like detective work without all the clues. But when we see something that might increase the chance of an eruption we have to be more cautious," Jolly said.

Small earthquakes 3 to 5 kilometres beneath the crater lake in late October and early November had now stopped.

GeoNet said it was not clear if those earthquakes were related to the high temperatures estimated a few hundred metres beneath the lake.

The crater lake is quiet and its temperature has remained relatively low, 20 - 25 degrees Celsius, since March.
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First sighting responsible for undersea eruption
27th Oct 2012 5:00 AM

New Zealand scientists are investigating active undersea volcanos, north of New Zealand. New images reveal the impacts of a significant eruption on the seafloor.

NIWA research vessel Tangaroa has just mapped the Kermadec volcano that erupted 800 kilometres north east of Tauranga, on 19 July 2012, producing a pumice raft the size of Canterbury.

Tangaroa recently embarked on a 23-day voyage of discovery in the Kermadecs, north of New Zealand, to study the volcanic chain that stretches for 1000 kilometres north from Bay of Plenty.

"When we mapped the area yesterday", says NIWA ocean geology scientist Dr Joshu Mountjoy, "we found a new volcanic cone which has formed on the edge of the volcano, towering 240 metres above the crater rim.

"It is fantastic to be able to record the change on the seafloor following these kinds of events."

The Havre volcano eruption was strong enough to breach the ocean surface from a depth of 1100 metres. It produced clouds of ash visible by satellite, and a pumice raft that covered an area of 22,000 square kilometres.

The voyage, led by NIWA's volcanologist Dr Richard Wysoczanski, comprises geology and biology scientists from NIWA, GNS Science, as well as students from Victoria University of Wellington and The University of Auckland.

Dr Wysoczanski says, "One of the most exciting aspects of the cruise is the chance to map Havre volcano which, we have now confirmed, erupted in July. We know the shape of the volcano from previous research. Using the multibeam echosounder, we made a before and after comparison of the volcano to determine the size of the eruption and the change it has made to the seafloor."

NIWA had previously mapped Havre volcano in 2002, showing a 1 kilometre high undersea mountain with a 5 kilometre wide, 800 metre deep central crater. This central steep-walled crater is a caldera, which is a type of volcano, like Lake Taupo, known to produce large and violent eruptions.

amazing thermal image of havre volcano
[link to www.bayofplentytimes.co.nz]
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Excellent Thread!! will be stopping in on a regular basis, Thanks for all your hard work!
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Excellent Thread!! will be stopping in on a regular basis, Thanks for all your hard work!
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28502155


hiya AC

thank you, and welcome aboard

this new development at white island is a surprise, to say the least..
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White Island Volcano, New Zealand
John Seach on December 12th, 2012
On 12th December 2012 the alert at White Island volcano, New Zealand was raised to level 2 after a 20-30 m wide spiny lava dome was observed in a small crater. Tour operators on the island had noticed the lava dome for about 2 weeks. The dome possibly started forming after the August 2012 ash eruption. This is the first time a lava dome has been observed at White Island volcano.
More on White Island Volcano…

-----

White Island Volcano - John Seach

(Whakaari)
Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

37.52 S, 177.78 E
summit elevation 321 m
stratovolcano

White Island is currently the most active volcano in New Zealand. It is located 48 km offshore in the Bay of Plenty at the northeastern extremity of Taupo Volcanic Zone. White Island is unusual because its active subaerial vent is located below sea level.

White Island consists of an older eroded western cone, and a younger central cone that forms most of the island. The volcano rises 700 m from the sea floor.

The volcano has a history of frequent small phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions,
interrupting long intervals of continuous intense, fumarolic and hydrothermal activity. Historically active vents are located in the western subcrater and the western half of the central subcrater. Fumaroles and hot springs discharge on the floor of the main crater, and represent the subaerial expression of a long-lived acidic hydrothermal system related to the deeper magmatic system of the volcano.

The floor of the main crater is covered by a debris avalanche deposit, with a hummocky topography which formed by crater wall collapse in
September 1914, blocking a long-established vent system in the western subcrater.

Gases are continually emitted from the craters and fumaroles on White Island and pose a hazard to visitors to the volcano. Sulphur mining occurred at the island until 1914 when a crater collapse created a lahar which killed 10 workers.

2012 Lava dome
On 12th December 2012 the alert at White Island volcano, New Zealand was raised to level 2 after a 20-30 m wide spiny lava dome was observed in a small crater. Tour operators on the island had noticed the lava dome for about 2 weeks. The dome possibly started forming after the August 2012 ash eruption. This is the first time a lava dome has been observed at White Island volcano.
2012 Eruption
A small eruption occurred at White Island volcano at 04:55 am on 6th August 2012. The eruption occurred at the crater lake and was preceded by strong volcanic tremor on 4-5 August. The crater lake had gradually emptied during 2011 and 2012, and the water level rose rapidly 3-5 m on 27-28 July 2012.
2008 update
White Island's Crater Lake has continued to rise since December 2007, after being almost completely evaporated in late October 2007. By 23rd October 2008 the lake had risen by 15 m. New springs formed on the floor and old springs flowed again. Steam, gas, and mud emissions increased from the largest vent during October 2008.

1976-1982 Eruptions
The eruption sequence was the longest and largest historical event at the volcano. The eruptions consisted of seven phases of alternating phreatomagmatic and Strombolian explosions.
White Island Volcano Eruptions

2012, 2001, 1998-2000, 1998, 1995, 1986-94, 1983-84, 1976-82, 1974, 1971, 1971, 1970, 1969, 1968-69, 1966-67, 1962, 1959, 1958, 1957, 1955, 1947, 1933, 1930, 1928, 1926, 1924, 1922, 1909, 1908?, 1886?,1886, 1885?, 1885, 1856?, 1836, 1826.

images of john seach at white island
[link to volcanolive.com]
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White Island volcanic alert raised

[link to www.rotoruadailypost.co.nz]

The volcanic alert level at White Island has been raised to 2 and the aviation colour code to orange.

GNS Science volcanologists have noticed a spiny lava dome at White Island in an existing small crater formed as a result of eruptions in August.

"On Monday we were able to see a spiny lava dome that has grown in a crater formed by an eruption on August 5. We were really lucky the steam was not too thick and got great views. The dome is probably 20 - 30 metres across and has spines sticking up. In more than 30 years visiting White Island I've never seen anything like it", said GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott.

"If you imagine a volcano is like a tube of toothpaste then a lava dome is like the congealed, dried toothpaste that has come out of the tube. It doesn't move like a lava flow but grows from the inside as new magma comes up and pushes the already cooled magma upwards and outwards" said Mr Scott.

Comments from tour operators at White Island suggest the dome may have been visible for two weeks, but not as clearly as Monday. How long the dome has been growing is unknown, but possibly since the ash eruption in early August.

Lava domes are usually formed by magma that has lost most of its gases so that it is very sticky. This causes the magma to pile up over the volcanic event and form a dome. Lavadomes are common at some volcanoes, but have never been seen before at White Island.

Magma last reached the surface at White Island in 2000. At that time it was erupted explosively as molten rocks called volcanic bombs, rather than forming a dome.

"We've raised the Volcanic Alert Level and Aviation Colour Code to reflect the new style of eruptive activity", said GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly. "Our concern is that lava dome growth can be accompanied by explosive eruptions and could impact people on the island. We need to see if the dome is continuing to grow. If it's not growing then we will be less concerned".

GNS Science continues to closely monitor White Island through the GeoNet project.
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Scientists warn of unrest along New Zealand's North Island volcano belt

[link to www.globaltimes.cn]

New Zealand's central North Island looks set for a period of volcanic activity after warnings issued on three volcanoes over the last two days.

On Wednesday, scientists at the government's Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS Science) announced they had noticed a "spiny lava dome" that had grown in a crater on White Island, a volcanic island off the east of the North Island, after an eruption on August 5.

GNS Science raised the volcanic alert level to level two, indicating minor eruptive activity, and the aviation color code to orange, warning pilots that an eruption was underway with little or no ash emissions.

"The dome is probably 20 to 30 meters across and has spines sticking up. In more than 30 years I've never seen anything like it while visiting White Island," GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott said in a statement.

"If you imagine a volcano is like a tube of toothpaste then a lava dome is like the congealed, dried toothpaste that has come out of the tube. It doesn't move like a lava flow, but grows from the inside as new magma comes up and pushes the already cooled magma upwards and outwards," said Scott.

Lava domes were common at some volcanoes, but had never been seen before at White Island, where magma last reached the surface in 2000 during an explosive eruption that threw up molten rocks called volcanic bombs, rather than forming a dome.

"Our concern is that lava dome growth can be accompanied by explosive eruptions and could impact people on the island. We need to see if the dome is continuing to grow. If it's not growing, then we will be less concerned," GNS Science head volcanologist Gill Jolly said in the statement.

GNS Science would continue to closely monitor White Island.

Also Wednesday, GNS Science volcanologists warned they still believed Mount Ruapehu, in the central North Island, remained at a heightened level of unrest and that an eruption was more likely than normal.

"Our analysis is still showing higher than normal temperatures beneath the crater lake. We think this reflects a partially sealed zone a few hundred meters beneath the lake, which might be causing a pressure build up behind it. That pressure would make an eruption more likely than normal," Jolly said in a statement.

"It doesn't mean that an eruption is inevitable," said Jolly.

"If the sealed zone fails suddenly an eruption could occur, probably with little or no warning. If it fails more gradually then the pressure would probably be released more slowly and the likelihood of an eruption would revert to normal."

The crater lake was quiet and its temperature had remained relatively low at 20 to 25 degrees centigrade since March.

Eruptions at Ruapehu in 1988, 2006 and 2007 were believed to have occurred as a result of sudden failure of a seal beneath the crater lake.

Small earthquakes 3 to 5 km beneath the crater lake in late October and early November had stopped, but it was unclear whether they were related to the high temperatures estimated a few hundred meters beneath the lake.

The volcanic alert level for Ruapehu remained at level one, indicating a departure from typical background surface activity, and the aviation color code at yellow, indicating signs of elevated unrest above known background levels.

On Tuesday, GNS Science warned that neighboring Mount Tongariro was still showing a substantial possibility of further eruptions after an eruption in August and two more last month.

"After the second eruption in November we now have to consider the possibility that Tongariro might have entered an eruptive episode and this unrest could continue for several months," Scott said in a statement.

"Within an episode Tongariro might quietly discharge steam most of the time, but occasionally have small eruptions with little or no warning. There was a similar episode of activity in the 1890s."

Tongariro had seen only minor seismic activity since November 21, but there had been a very noticeable gas discharge in recent days.

It was on volcanic alert level one and aviation color code yellow.

The 80,000-hectare Tongariro National Park has more than 1 million visitors a year.

Last month's eruption resulted in videos of panicked hikers fleeing from the plume of ash and steam.

Tongariro's eruption on Aug. 6 was the first since 1897.
AKObserver

User ID: 29338061
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12/12/2012 02:36 AM

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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Wow T!
Do you ever sleep? This is an amazing thread! You need an assistant! lol. Stay Safe Sis,prayers and hugs
Anonymous Coward
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New Zealand
12/12/2012 02:44 AM
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Re: WHAT IS HAPPENING AT WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO??? New Zealand/Kermadec & South Pacific QUAKE/VOLCANO WATCH
Wow T!
Do you ever sleep? This is an amazing thread! You need an assistant! lol. Stay Safe Sis,prayers and hugs
 Quoting: AKObserver


thank you, AK xxx

its only 8.42pm here, but i guess i will be busy tonight learning about spiny domes on my doorstep!

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