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hiya mahala

thank you, yes, this does look very interesting..

but when i go to the link, i get this:
[link to linkinghub.elsevier.com]
 Quoting: Tauranga

looks to be a server error I think. I'll try to find another one...
 Quoting: Mahala

found the pdf file of it... [link to zen.nzherald.co.nz (secure)]
 Quoting: Mahala

thanks sis, i will check it out now xx
 Quoting: Tauranga

Lava flows represent one of the most significant volcanic hazards from basaltic monogenetic volcanoes, such
as spatter cones, scoria cones, maars, and tuff rings. They are common features emanating from parasitic
vents on the flanks of polygenetic volcanoes and in dominantly ‘flat-lying’ intraplate volcanic fields. The
Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a volcanic field that has been active for the last ca. 250 ka, hosting at least
50 monogenetic volcanoes. Morphometric parameters of lava flows, such as volume, length, thickness and
area, were used to quantify the potential lava-flow inundation susceptibility to New Zealand's most densely
populated area, the City of Auckland based on an airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Surface Model (DSM). The morphometric parameters of fifteen studied flows included: average length of 2.5 km
(range 0.7–6.5 km), overall average thickness of 14.8 m (range 3.4–43.8 m), average of maximum thicknesses of 48.2 m (range 18.3–180.5 m), average area occupied of 5.1 km2
(range 0.4–25.1 km2
) and average
volume of 0.12 km3
(range 0.005–1 km3
). Based on these parameters and a LiDAR-derived DSM, the present
topography was classified into: sea, topographic depressions; low-lying areas prone to inundation by an average lava flow; buffer zones prone to inundation only by extremely thick lava flows; and peaks or ridges,
which are unlikely to be overtopped. In monogenetic fields, each new vent occurs in a new location, creating
uncertainty around the spatial location of the volcanic hazard. Thus, this research provides a general vent
location-independent approach to describe the lava flow susceptibility for a potentially active monogenetic
volcanic field. What this analysis reveals is that the City of Auckland can be divided into two distinct areas
with strongly different susceptibility to lava flow inundation. The southern part of the City is predominantly
flat, without hindrance to lava flow, whereas the hilly northern and central part has many ridges that can
limit or channelise lavas. These contrasting properties must be accounted for in scenario-based or probabilistic hazard and risk models developed for the AVF.

Basaltic, monogenetic volcanoes often produce lava flows with a
wide range in length and size (Felpeto et al., 2001; Harris & Rowland,
2001; Tucker & Scott, 2009). The length of lava flows is mostly dependent on the rate of effusion (Harris et al., 2007; Walker, 1973), the
total volume (Stasiuk & Jaupart, 1997), the crystallinity and viscosity
(Dragoni & Tallarico, 1994; Griffiths, 2000), the slope angle of the substratum (Favalli et al., 2009b) and other topographic features, such as
valleys (Rodriguez-Gonzalez et al., 2011). To quantify and express
such controlling conditions on lava flow emplacement, which are the
basic inputs required of lava flow simulation codes, remotely sensed
data are commonly used. For detection of active lava flows, the thermal

bands of various satellites, such as MODerate resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission
and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper
are used (Ganci et al., 2012; Harris et al., 1998; Lombardo &
Buongiorno, 2006; Pieri & Abrams, 2005; Wright et al., 2004). These remote sensing data can provide information about the time-averaged
discharge rates of a lava flow, which is one of the major requirements
of lava flow simulations.
Lava flows related to monogenetic eruptions are commonly small
in volume (≤1 km3
) and affect small areas (a few square kilometers).
This small size requires at least medium (10–50 m) to high resolution
(≤10 m) imagery to map them accurately. Many types of topographic
data can be used to calculate lava flow volumes including Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) (Harris et al., 2010), Interferometric
Synthetic Aperture Radar (INSAR) (Mouginis-Mark & Garbeil, 2005),
ASTER stereo image-based Digital Surface Models, i.e. DSMs (Hirano
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