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croatoan

 
pinkytoe
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User ID: 107782
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07/22/2006 05:39 PM
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croatoan
I am just learning about this. It's fascinating.

The lost colony.

At Fort Raleigh, archaeologists unearth clues about the settlements that disappeared more than 400 years ago.

IT IS 1585 IN ENGLAND, and Sir Walter Raleigh--poet, warrior, and scholar--has persuaded Queen Elizabeth to help finance a colony in the New World. The queen is eager to claim the land before the Spanish do, and Sir Walter Raleigh's vision of expansion and material riches is well received. Raleigh dispatches seven ships, 107 colonists, and Sir Richard Grenville, one of England's finest captains, to sail across the ocean to an untamed and primitive land. ...


[link to www.highbeam.com]

Anybody got any links they liked about this?
pinkytoe (OP)

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07/22/2006 05:44 PM
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The image is one of the most haunting in American folklore: Eleanor Dare cradling her infant daughter as they struggle through a vast wilderness, seemingly forgotten by her father who brought them to an unfamiliar land, then left them to fend for themselves.

In the four centuries since their disappearance, Eleanor and Virginia Dare have become true American heroines, players in an epic unsolved mystery that still challenges historians and archaeologists as one of America's oldest. In 1587, over 100 men, women and children journeyed from Britain to Roanoke Island on North Carolina's coast and established the first English settlement in America. Within three years, they had vanished with scarcely a trace. England's initial attempt at colonization of the New World was a disaster, and one of America's most enduing legends was born.

The lie of the land of modern Roanoke Island appears much as it did at the time of the colonists' arrival. The low, narrow island lies between the treacherous Outer Banks and the mainland. Although it is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, it is a verdant oasis compared to the harsh winds and pounding surf of the barrier islands. Instead, Roanoke is characterized by thick marshlands and stands of live oaks teeming with wildlife--a much more hospitable site for settlement.

In 1584, explorers Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe were the first to set eyes on the island. They had been sent to the area by Sir Walter Raleigh with the mission of scouting the broad sounds and estuaries in search of an ideal location for settlement. Amadas and Barlowe wrote glowing reports of Roanoke Island, and when they returned to England a year later with two Natives, Manteo and Wanchese, all of Britain was abuzz with talk of the New World's wonders.

Queen Elizabeth herself was impressed, and she granted Raleigh a patent to all the lands he could occupy. She named the new land "Virginia", in honor of the Virgin Queen, and the next year, Raleigh sent a party of 100 soldiers, craftsmen and scholars to Roanoke Island.

Under the direction of Ralph Lane, the garrison was doomed from the beginning. They arrived too late in the season for planting, and supplies were dwindling rapidly. To make matters worse, Lane, a military captain, alienated the neighboring Roanoke Indians, and ultimately sealed his own fate by murdering their chief, Wingina over a stolen cup.

By 1586, when Sir Francis Drake stopped at Roanoke after a plundering expedition, Lane and his men had had enough. They abandoned the settlement and left behind a fort, the remains of which can still be seen at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site today. Ironically, a supply ship from England arrived at Roanoke less than a week later . Finding the island deserted, the leader left behind 15 of his men to hold the fort and returned to England for reinforcements.

Raleigh was angry with Lane but not deterred from his mission. He recruited 117 men, women and children for a more permanent settlement, and appointed John White governor of the new "Cittie of Raleigh". Among the colonists were White's pregnant daughter, Eleanor Dare, his son-in-law Annanias Dare, and the Indian chief Manteo, who had become an ally during his stay in Britain.

Raleigh had since decided that the Chesapeake Bay area was a better site for settlement, and he hired Simon Fernandes, a Portuguese pilot familiar with the area, to transport the colonists there. Fernandes, however, was by trade a privateer in the escalating war between Spain and England. By the time the caravan arrived at Roanoke Island in July, 1587, to check on the 15 men left behind a year earlier, he had grown impatient with the White and anxious to resume the hunt for Spanish shipping. He ordered the colonists ashore on Roanoke Island.

The colonists soon learned that Indians had murdered the 15 men and were uneasy at the prospect of remaining on Roanoke Island. But Fernandes left them no choice. They unloaded their belonging and supplies and repaired Lane's fort. On August 18, 1587, Eleanor Dare gave birth to a daughter she named Virginia, thus earning the distinction of being the first English child born on American soil. Ten days later, Ferndades departed for England, taking along an anxious John White, who hesitantly decided to return to England for supplies. It was the last time he would never see his family.

Upon his arrival in Britain, White found himself trapped by the impending invasion of the Spanish Armada. Finally, two years after the stunning defeat of the Armada, he again departed for Roanoke Island. He arrived on August 18, 1590--his grand daughter's third birthday--and found the Cittie of Raleigh deserted, plundered, and surrounded "with a high pallisado of great trees, with cortynes and flankers, very fort-like". On one of the palisades, he found the single word "CROATOAN" carved into the surface, and the letters "CRO" carved into a nearby tree.

White knew the carvings were "to signifie the place, where I should find the planters seated, according to a secret token agreed upon betweene them and me at my last departure from them...for at my coming away, they were prepared to remove 50 miles into the maine". He had also instructed the colonists that, should they be forced to leave the island under duress, they should carve a Maltese cross above their destination. White found no such sign, and he had every hope that he would locate the colony and his family at Croatoan, the home of Chief Manteo's people south of Roanoke on present-day Hatteras Island.

Before he could make further exploration, however, a great hurricane arose, damaging his ships and forcing him back to England. Despite repeated attempts, he was never again able to raise the funding and resources to make the trip to America again. Raleigh had given up hope of settlement, and White died many years later on one of Raleigh's estates, ignorant to the fate of his family and the colony.

The 117 pioneers of Roanoke Island had vanished into the great wilderness.

In the following years, evidence as to their fate was slow to emerge, but some intriguing accounts exist. In 1709, English explorer John Lawson visited Roanoke Island and spent some time among the Hatteras Indians, descendants of the Croatoan tribe. In A New Voyage to Carolina, he wrote "that several of their ancestors were white people and could talk in a book as we do, the truth of which is confirmed by gray eyes being found infrequently among these Indians and no others."

In the 1880s, with the approach of the Roanoke Colony's 300th anniversary, a North Carolina man named Hamilton MacMillan proposed a theory that holds some credence today. MacMillan lived in Robeson County in southeastern North Carolina near a settlement of Pembroke Indians, many of whom claimed that their ancestors came from "Roanoke in Virginia".

According to MacMillan, the Pembrokes spoke pure Anglo-Saxon English and bore the last names of many of the lost colonists. Furthermore, "Roanoke in Virginia" was how Raleigh and his contemporaries referred to Roanoke Island. The Pembrokes also had European features: fair eyes, light hair, and an Anglo bone structure. MacMillan's findings, published in 1888 pamphlet, gained a great deal of attention from the academic community and renewed interest in the lost colony.

Other less plausible theories and some outright trickery surfaced in the mid-1900s. A series of mysterious rocks first uncovered in 1937 in eastern North Carolina seemed to solve the mystery. The original stone, dubbed the Eleanor Dare Stone, was found in a swamp 60 miles west of Roanoke Island by a traveler. It was covered with strange carvings, which, when deciphered, appeared to be a message from Eleanor Dare to her father, indicating that the colony had fled Roanoke Island after Indian attack.

Over the next three years, nearly 40 similar stones were unearthed from North Carolina to Georgia, and when pieced together, related a fantastic tale of the colonists' overland journey through the southeast, culminating in the death of Eleanor Dare in 1599. Although the academic world was skeptical, the media had a field day and were forced to eat their words in 1940 when an investigative reporter exposed the entire saga as an elaborate hoax.

In the past 40 years, scholars have discovered previously unknown records in the Spanish and British archives that may point the way toward a logical, if not provable, solution. Many historians now believe that after White's departure from Roanoke in 1587, the colony split into two factions, and the largest segment of the colony departed for the Chesapeake Bay, their original destination. Lane had explored the Bay area in 1585, and the colonists probably had maps made by White himself.

When John Smith and the Jamestown colonists arrived in 1607, Smith took up the search for the colonists and discovered that they probably had been in the area. In his dealings with the hostile Indian chief Powhatan, he learned that the colonists had lived among the friendly Chesapeake Indians on the south side of the Bay. Threatened by the intrusion of white men into the region, Powhatan claimed to have attacked the colonists and murdered most of them. As proof of his claim, he showed Smith "a musket barrell and a brass mortar, and certain pieces of iron that had been theirs."

By 1612, the Jamestown leaders had received numerous reports that at least some of the Roanoke colonists were living nearby. They sent out several search parties, but had no success, and soon gave up the search.

What became of the remainder of the colonists left on Roanoke Island? Scholars speculate that they were left behind to meet White upon his return from England, but soon fled to Croatoan, leaving the mysterious carvings behind as a signal to White. Spanish archives reveal that they were gone by June, 1588, when a raiding party put in at Roanoke Island only to find the settlement deserted. Scholars assume that they were then assimilated into the Croatoan tribe.

Today, the north end of Roanoke Island is regularly visited by historians and archaeologists hoping to uncover new evidence as to the fate of the colony. So far, none has been forthcoming. The post and the tree bearing the carvings have long since vanished, although many of the live oaks in the National Historic Site were seedlings during the colonists tenure. No archaeological clues as to the whereabouts of the Cittie of Raleigh have ever been uncovered, and the 500-acre park remains mostly an enigma, apropos to the events that unfolded here 400 years ago.



[link to www.coastalguide.com]
Anonymous Coward
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07/22/2006 05:51 PM
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Re: croatoan
whatever
20-40 (nli)
User ID: 120685
Croatia
07/22/2006 05:53 PM
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Re: croatoan
Read EARLY CROATIAN CONTACTS WITH AMERICA AND THE MYSTERY OF THE CROATANS [link to www.studiacroatica.com]
pinkytoe (OP)

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07/22/2006 05:55 PM
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Re: croatoan
Read EARLY CROATIAN CONTACTS WITH AMERICA AND THE MYSTERY OF THE CROATANS [link to www.studiacroatica.com]
 Quoting: 20-40 (nli) 120685

thank you, I am.
Much appreciated. smile_hear
Anonymous Coward
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07/22/2006 05:56 PM
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Re: croatoan
"Digging for the Truth" on History channel just did a show on it.
They found DNA links to some local indians and English decendents of the colonists showing that some of them did survive and most likely where taken in by the Indians.
pinkytoe (OP)

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07/22/2006 05:58 PM
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Re: croatoan
whatever
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 53400

too many big words? Or do you dislike american history?
pinkytoe (OP)

User ID: 107782
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07/22/2006 06:02 PM
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Re: croatoan
"Digging for the Truth" on History channel just did a show on it.
They found DNA links to some local indians and English decendents of the colonists showing that some of them did survive and most likely where taken in by the Indians.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 105082

I wish I'd seen it. This is something i never heard of till today. Really enjoying it.
Anonymous Coward
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11/30/2012 11:49 PM
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Re: croatoan
"But none of this really explains the significance of the carving of the word “Croatoan” on that post or the fact that the same word has accompanied inexplicable disappearances in North America in the last few centuries, often in places far away from Roanoke Island. A few days before his death, and following a disappearance that remains unexplained to this day, Edgar Allan Poe was brought to his death bed in a state of delirium whispering the word “Croatoan”. The same word was found in other places at other times: scribbled in the journal of Amelia Earhart after her disappearance in 1937, carved into the post of the last bed that the celebrated horror author Ambrose Bierce slept in before he vanished in Mexico in 1913, scratched on the wall of the cell that the notorious stagecoach robber Black Bart inhabited before he was released from prison in 1888 never to be seen again, and, most disturbingly of all, written on the last page of the logbook of the ship Carroll A. Deering when it ran aground with no one aboard on Cape Hatteras in 1921 (not that far from what was once known as Croatoan Island).

What the secret of Croatoan is and in particular what its connection is to those born in the Americas that causes their disappearance even far from home remains a mystery to this day. It would be remiss of me, however, not to mention one more theory, that of the natives who once lived on Roanoke Island all those years ago. The Croatans themselves believed that the island had a spirit and, if angered, this spirit had the power to change those who offended it into the form of animals, trees and rocks. So perhaps this is the explanation – that none of the people affected really disappeared but were simply transformed. If so it is no less bizarre or credible than any of the other theories that have been put forward over the years!"


[link to anilbalan.com]


wtf
Anonymous Coward
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12/01/2012 12:06 AM
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Re: croatoan
"But none of this really explains the significance of the carving of the word “Croatoan” on that post or the fact that the same word has accompanied inexplicable disappearances in North America in the last few centuries, often in places far away from Roanoke Island. A few days before his death, and following a disappearance that remains unexplained to this day, Edgar Allan Poe was brought to his death bed in a state of delirium whispering the word “Croatoan”. The same word was found in other places at other times: scribbled in the journal of Amelia Earhart after her disappearance in 1937, carved into the post of the last bed that the celebrated horror author Ambrose Bierce slept in before he vanished in Mexico in 1913, scratched on the wall of the cell that the notorious stagecoach robber Black Bart inhabited before he was released from prison in 1888 never to be seen again, and, most disturbingly of all, written on the last page of the logbook of the ship Carroll A. Deering when it ran aground with no one aboard on Cape Hatteras in 1921 (not that far from what was once known as Croatoan Island).

What the secret of Croatoan is and in particular what its connection is to those born in the Americas that causes their disappearance even far from home remains a mystery to this day. It would be remiss of me, however, not to mention one more theory, that of the natives who once lived on Roanoke Island all those years ago. The Croatans themselves believed that the island had a spirit and, if angered, this spirit had the power to change those who offended it into the form of animals, trees and rocks. So perhaps this is the explanation – that none of the people affected really disappeared but were simply transformed. If so it is no less bizarre or credible than any of the other theories that have been put forward over the years!"


[link to anilbalan.com]


wtf
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28781099


Is this for real? Did these people really write the word "Croatoan" before disappearing? Is it code for something, a place the abducted go to or maybe a gateway?

This is some freaky shit.
Anonymous Coward
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12/01/2012 12:18 AM
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Re: croatoan
"But none of this really explains the significance of the carving of the word “Croatoan” on that post or the fact that the same word has accompanied inexplicable disappearances in North America in the last few centuries, often in places far away from Roanoke Island. A few days before his death, and following a disappearance that remains unexplained to this day, Edgar Allan Poe was brought to his death bed in a state of delirium whispering the word “Croatoan”. The same word was found in other places at other times: scribbled in the journal of Amelia Earhart after her disappearance in 1937, carved into the post of the last bed that the celebrated horror author Ambrose Bierce slept in before he vanished in Mexico in 1913, scratched on the wall of the cell that the notorious stagecoach robber Black Bart inhabited before he was released from prison in 1888 never to be seen again, and, most disturbingly of all, written on the last page of the logbook of the ship Carroll A. Deering when it ran aground with no one aboard on Cape Hatteras in 1921 (not that far from what was once known as Croatoan Island).

What the secret of Croatoan is and in particular what its connection is to those born in the Americas that causes their disappearance even far from home remains a mystery to this day. It would be remiss of me, however, not to mention one more theory, that of the natives who once lived on Roanoke Island all those years ago. The Croatans themselves believed that the island had a spirit and, if angered, this spirit had the power to change those who offended it into the form of animals, trees and rocks. So perhaps this is the explanation – that none of the people affected really disappeared but were simply transformed. If so it is no less bizarre or credible than any of the other theories that have been put forward over the years!"


[link to anilbalan.com]


wtf
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28781099


Is this for real? Did these people really write the word "Croatoan" before disappearing? Is it code for something, a place the abducted go to or maybe a gateway?

This is some freaky shit.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28781099


It's just the name of the Indian tribe. This story really isn't as fascinating as it first sounds. It's a small group of people that assimilated into another culture because they were abandoned and left to fend for themselves.
Anonymous Coward
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12/01/2012 12:26 AM
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Re: croatoan
"But none of this really explains the significance of the carving of the word “Croatoan” on that post or the fact that the same word has accompanied inexplicable disappearances in North America in the last few centuries, often in places far away from Roanoke Island. A few days before his death, and following a disappearance that remains unexplained to this day, Edgar Allan Poe was brought to his death bed in a state of delirium whispering the word “Croatoan”. The same word was found in other places at other times: scribbled in the journal of Amelia Earhart after her disappearance in 1937, carved into the post of the last bed that the celebrated horror author Ambrose Bierce slept in before he vanished in Mexico in 1913, scratched on the wall of the cell that the notorious stagecoach robber Black Bart inhabited before he was released from prison in 1888 never to be seen again, and, most disturbingly of all, written on the last page of the logbook of the ship Carroll A. Deering when it ran aground with no one aboard on Cape Hatteras in 1921 (not that far from what was once known as Croatoan Island).

What the secret of Croatoan is and in particular what its connection is to those born in the Americas that causes their disappearance even far from home remains a mystery to this day. It would be remiss of me, however, not to mention one more theory, that of the natives who once lived on Roanoke Island all those years ago. The Croatans themselves believed that the island had a spirit and, if angered, this spirit had the power to change those who offended it into the form of animals, trees and rocks. So perhaps this is the explanation – that none of the people affected really disappeared but were simply transformed. If so it is no less bizarre or credible than any of the other theories that have been put forward over the years!"


[link to anilbalan.com]


wtf
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28781099


Is this for real? Did these people really write the word "Croatoan" before disappearing? Is it code for something, a place the abducted go to or maybe a gateway?

This is some freaky shit.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 28781099


It's just the name of the Indian tribe. This story really isn't as fascinating as it first sounds. It's a small group of people that assimilated into another culture because they were abandoned and left to fend for themselves.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 22151483


No, I am referring to Edgar Allen Poe, Amelia Earhart and the other ones mentioned above. If that is true that they left the word "Croatoan" before they also disappeared then that is some freaky shit.
Anonymous Coward
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12/01/2012 12:39 AM
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Re: croatoan
the later uses of croatoan by those that either disappeared, or temporarily "went on walkabout" as our ozzie friends would say, is akin to "rosebud" in the post "citizen kane" era. poe was an incredibly depressive alky and doper, his origins were in baltimore (the chesapeake bay), and probably used it to signify he intentionally was "going lost" (he was a mystery loving "drama queen"). both bearce and earhart's usage were during the era of the press frenzy over "croatoan/roanoke stones". in the case of bearse, it was probably similar motivation to poe, in the case of earhart, probably a wry final joke at her own expense (or, possibly the same motive as poe as well). examined in historical context, the usage by them makes sense.
Little Miss Sunshine

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12/01/2012 12:53 AM

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Re: croatoan
I am just learning about this. It's fascinating.

The lost colony.

At Fort Raleigh, archaeologists unearth clues about the settlements that disappeared more than 400 years ago.

IT IS 1585 IN ENGLAND, and Sir Walter Raleigh--poet, warrior, and scholar--has persuaded Queen Elizabeth to help finance a colony in the New World. The queen is eager to claim the land before the Spanish do, and Sir Walter Raleigh's vision of expansion and material riches is well received. Raleigh dispatches seven ships, 107 colonists, and Sir Richard Grenville, one of England's finest captains, to sail across the ocean to an untamed and primitive land. ...


[link to www.highbeam.com]

Anybody got any links they liked about this?
 Quoting: pinkytoe


You haven't been watching "SuperNatural" have you!? hf
Anonymous Coward
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08/20/2013 10:24 PM
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Re: croatoan
hiding

bump

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