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Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving

 
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User ID: 1138110
New Zealand
11/08/2010 11:18 PM
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Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
The mosquito species most responsible for spreading malaria in Africa seems to be evolving into 2 separate species with different traits, researchers have found. The development may complicate efforts to control the disease.
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Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases in the tropical world and an enormous public health problem. It can bring fever, chills and flu-like illness. Left untreated, malaria can cause life-threatening complications. Each year, up to 3 million people die of the disease worldwide. The majority are young children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Malaria is caused by a single-cell parasite called Plasmodium. Female mosquitoes can become infected after feeding on an infected human. They, in turn, can infect a new person when they feed again.

Anopheles gambiae is the mosquito that most commonly spreads human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. New populations of the insect evolve to exploit changing habitats and seasonal conditions, but these populations can’t always be distinguished from each other by traditional means. Genetic studies have found that there are at least 2 physically indistinguishable forms of A. gambiae, dubbed M and S. The success of mosquito control efforts depends on understanding the characteristics of these different mosquito populations, such as their feeding behavior and susceptibility to insecticides.

Two teams of researchers set out to use genomics to better understand the characteristics of A. gambiae populations. A group led by researchers at Imperial College London studied the complete M and S genome sequences. Another group, led by scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)—single differences in DNA sequence—among different A. gambiae populations. The projects were partly supported by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).

The findings appeared in back-to-back papers in the October 22, 2010, issue of Science. When the researchers compared the genomes of the A. gambiae M and S forms, they found them to be more different than expected. The results suggest that the 2 forms may be developing into 2 separate species. The SNP analysis revealed that different populations can quickly evolve to behave differently and thrive in different habitats.

These studies lay a foundation for further investigating these emerging species. Future studies can now explore how genetic changes affect the ability of different mosquito populations to compete in various habitats. The results will be used to refine existing malaria interventions and inform the development of new disease prevention strategies.

"From our new studies, we can see that mosquitoes are evolving more quickly than we thought and that unfortunately, strategies that might work against one strain of mosquito might not be effective against another,” says one of the lead authors, Dr. Mara Lawniczak of Imperial College London. "It's important to identify and monitor these hidden genetic changes in mosquitoes if we are to succeed in bringing malaria under control by targeting mosquitoes."

—by Harrison Wein, Ph.D.[

[link to www.nih.gov]
The more we observe with our science the more we may come to think that magic and sorcery are just a better explanation.
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1155651
United States
11/09/2010 06:23 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
That's why Dengue fever is spreading around the gulf coast...
....oh...secret CIA Bio-warfare experiments released into public areas like Miami....oops.....I'm mean...not.
IMMANUEL

User ID: 1136999
United States
11/09/2010 06:24 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
No merda Sherlock...

If you believe your cool, if not, suffer.
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1154135
Australia
11/09/2010 06:36 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
Im really surprised this doesn't blame the whole of malaria on carbon dioxide and present the answer to AIDS as carbon scamming/trading.
im nearly ready  (OP)

User ID: 1138110
New Zealand
11/09/2010 08:33 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
Bill Gates Funds Approval of GM Mosquitoes to Combat Dengue

The most shocking section of this release is that for the last 50 years scientists have releasedbillions of engineered insects into the ecosystem. There has been very little public debate about whether we should be meddling with nature by introducing billions of new organisms. It’s understandable in regards to mosquitoes, as most people find them to be a nuisance if not a health menace; therefore, despite a lack of knowledge, most people will read this and say “good, get rid of them.”

It seems that if scientists have been able to successfully modify insects genetically for the past half-decade, then at least some of those species were originally designed to be a disease-carrying weapon. In fact, many have reported that recent dengue outbreaks can be directly traced to U.S. Army experiments coordinated by the CIA. In most cases of government funding for scientific research, there is usually a military origin. The technology is even being used as another manufactured terrorist threat.

Given the absolute certainty that global organizations such as the World Health Organization are utterly corrupt with their phony pandemics indicating elite alliances and lack of true concern for human health, it is time that we all become skeptics regarding their efforts. And when proveneugenicists like Bill Gates are involved in the funding of such technology, it should be clear by now to oppose such meddling with nature in order to help “save” humans.

read full artical [link to nwoandsecretsocieties.wordpress.com]
The more we observe with our science the more we may come to think that magic and sorcery are just a better explanation.
im nearly ready  (OP)

User ID: 1138110
New Zealand
11/09/2010 11:33 PM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
The Role of Biomedical Research
in Malaria Eradication


Although malaria has been controlled in many local and regional populations, the permanent elimination of malaria parasites throughout the world remains an elusive goal, and the disease continues to claim nearly one million lives each year. In 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates called for a renewed effort to eradicate malaria worldwide. Some skeptics have questioned the feasibility of doing so because of failed attempts to eradicate malaria in the 20th century. In a new commentary, National Institutes of Health scientists B. Fenton Hall, M.D., Ph.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), discuss the lessons learned from past attempts to eradicate malaria and identify key challenges to achieving success today.

The renewed effort to eradicate malaria will require a long-term commitment that incorporates multiple activities, interventions and approaches, they assert. As success in controlling malaria is achieved, the behavior and distribution of malaria parasites and the mosquitoes that spread them are likely to change. Scientists must be prepared to anticipate these changes and alter their strategies to keep ahead of them by developing a robust pipeline of new tools and interventions. The authors note that such a pipeline will require a sustained research effort, as NIAID recently outlined in the Strategic Plan for Malaria Research and the NIAID Malaria Research Agenda. NIAID is the lead U.S. government agency that supports basic biomedical and clinical research in malaria.

To reach the goal of malaria eradication, the authors write that several research challenges must be addressed and overcome. These include

* Translating basic research advances into usable malaria interventions
* Developing a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test that can be used to detect infection in people without symptoms of malaria, which will become even more important to the eradication effort as malaria becomes less prevalent
* Finding vaccines and other interventions that block the malaria parasite at different stages of its life cycle
* Understanding in more detail not only the most deadly malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, but also non-falciparum parasite species
* Maintaining a vigorous, long-term research effort as scientists and public health personnel work to eliminate and eradicate malaria from every part of the globe

Although these challenges are formidable, the authors conclude that with long-term commitment and sustained effort, malaria eradication can be achieved.

In a second commentary, NIAID malaria experts Louis H. Miller, M.D., and Susan K. Pierce, Ph.D., argue that malaria eradication will not be possible with existing tools. What is needed, the authors contend, is a modern-day “Manhattan Project” aimed at developing methods to modify mosquitoes so that they are unable to act as vectors of malaria and to introduce such modifications into multiple mosquito populations in a way that the modification can be spread and sustained within the population. Such an approach will require the recruitment of bright young minds into the field of insect biology and unwavering support of research into malaria vector biology.

[link to www.niaid.nih.gov]

Last Edited by im nearly ready on 11/09/2010 11:33 PM
The more we observe with our science the more we may come to think that magic and sorcery are just a better explanation.
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 925443
United States
11/10/2010 08:21 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
DDT was the most effective way of stopping malaria several decades ago. Environmentalists stopped DDT thus killing millions of people. Way to go Environmentalists!
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1159178
Canada
11/10/2010 08:25 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
i heard placing Limburger cheese blocks in strategic locations attracts malaria mosquito and keeps them away from the populous. grinning
im nearly ready  (OP)

User ID: 1160991
New Zealand
11/14/2010 03:10 AM
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Re: Malaria Mosquitoes Evolving
Genetically altered mosquitoes thwart dengue spreaders

An outdoor trial of mosquitoes genetically engineered to sabotage Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which spread dengue fever, has been declared a success by scientists in the field.

The trial is first time genetically modified mosquitoes have been released in the wild. The strategy promises to provide a new weapon against dengue, a disease that infects 50 million people annually and kills 25,000. In the past year, dengue has reappeared in the US for the first time in 65 years, and in southern Europe.

By the end of the six-month trial on a 16-hectare plot, populations of the native insects, which spread the dengue virus had plummeted.

"It's a proof of principle, that it works," says Angela Harris of the Mosquito Control and Research Unit on the Caribbean island of Grand Cayman, where the trial took place. The MCRU conducted the trial with Oxitec, the company in Oxford, UK, that bred the GM mosquitoes.
Combating disease

The only current method of combating dengue is to kill and control the mosquitoes that pick up and spread the virus when they feed on blood from infected individuals. "There's no vaccine, no preventative drugs as there are with malaria, and no therapeutic drugs," says Luke Alphey, the chief scientist and founder of Oxitec.

The only control measures are therefore to kill the mosquitoes with insecticides or monitor and restrict the small pools of water, saucers and receptacles where they breed. "The range of options really is extremely limited," says Alphey, adding that the disease poses a threat to 40 per cent of the world's population.

Oxitec breeds millions of males carrying an altered gene called tTA which they pass down when they mate with females. The lethal gene overcommits the gene-reading machinery of larva and pupae, preventing them from growing properly and causing them to die before adulthood, breaking the insects' life cycle.

In the six months of the trial, the researchers released males in batches of 50,000. A total of 3.3 million were released.

"Males don't bite, so no one gets sick," says Harris.

[link to www.newscientist.com]
The more we observe with our science the more we may come to think that magic and sorcery are just a better explanation.





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