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User ID: 13735393
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04/08/2012 08:42 PM
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It's now time that we have a boss of the world.

Every corporation has a CEO, every nation has a president, it's now time to look at the bigger picture.

This position would head up the accounting of available earth resources, and work on listing earth priorities and allocating resources toward meeting shared world goals.

That's why everything is such a mess, because there's no "Boss of the World" today. Who is accountable for earth problems and priorities overall?

It's an idea who's time has come.
Although it is not true that all conservatives are stupid,
it is true that most stupid people are conservative.

John Stuart Mill
It's much harder to be a liberal than a conservative. Why?
Because it is easier to give someone the finger than a helping hand.
Mike Royko
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04/08/2012 08:50 PM
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It's now time that we have a boss of the world.

Every corporation has a CEO, every nation has a president, it's now time to look at the bigger picture.

This position would head up the accounting of available earth resources, and work on listing earth priorities and allocating resources toward meeting shared world goals.

That's why everything is such a mess, because there's no "Boss of the World" today. Who is accountable for earth problems and priorities overall?

It's an idea who's time has come.
 Quoting: JATMON

Who is accountable for earth problems and priorities overall?

WE are, we all are.
It's easy to point fingers and blame others, but deep down we are the ones to blame.

WE are also the ones that can make a change, we don't need a global CEO.
having a globel CEO just ensure a different kind of beuracracy, if we as a global society somehow made it the norm that it was better to help other people, care for other people over personal gain and glory, then we could slowly change this place to something better :o)

User ID: 13735393
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04/08/2012 09:04 PM
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And that supercomputer would be.. the cosmic cube.



"Harvest Promotion" tells the people that THE GREAT WORK is complete. Our appointment with destiny is based in INTEGRITY - TRUTH - NON-VIOLENCE - OPEN PUBLIC EDUCATION, as we AWAKEN to let all the people know there is a perfect plan and DIVINE JUSTICE is for everyone.

THE WHOLE EARTH is OUR GLOBAL CORPORATION and its time we started getting dividends. The disarmament dividend alone will end poverty. Each one of us, as is within his/her power, should produce positive pictures, messages, articles, poems, audio visuals of the vision manifest.

Once our Light Being is centred we have access to the All-seeing Universal Eye. The tools which build creation are SUN-MOON - light projection and mirror reflection, which culminate in us sharing the Universal Eye or ORB OF THOTH in the Egyptian. It enables us to build our dream into reality and ride it to its destiny. The Universe Card in the Tarot, the last card in the deck, depicts the revived "Goddess" getting the snake of Perfect Truth and Wisdom through this "Needles Eye" aperture. The "snake" is called "ZUV" in the Mayan thesis.

Since human history began, this planet has been run by THE SONS OF BELIAL who are the children of darkness. They are described in the Ancient documents as "the gratifying, the satisfying, the use of material things for self, without thought or consideration as to the sources of such nor the hardships in the experience of others." Or, in other words, as we would term it today, they were those without a standard of morality.

The dictionary defines Sons of Belial as a personification of wickedness and evil... the same terms are used in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Sons of Belial had no standard, save of self, self- aggrandizement. In opposition to the Sons of Belial are the Sons of the One, whose standard is ONE PLANET - ONE PEOPLE.

Atlantis was a thriving place before there was a separation between the children of the law of One and the children of Belial... "In Atlantean land during those periods of early rise of sons of Belial as opposition that became more and more materialized as the powers were applied for self-aggrandizement."

People are tired of a violent society of endless war and desolation. People everywhere, are struggling to be free of oppression, longing to find a non-violent SOLUTION.

The perfect solution is being born in each immaculate Cosmic Mind- Womb. The "Coming Forth By Day" as described in the Egyptian thesis, is when the "Children of Earth" are making the cosmic connections as the principle of the Egyptian God Ptaah, who runs "the boat of a million years" now docks in Genesis II.

In the Egyptian Tarot, the birth of the "Child of the Aeon" completes THE GREAT WORK of the SINGULAR ONE. At (+1)+(-1)=0 the "Lord of Truth" emerges from the egg that came out of the mouth of Amun-Knepth, the True and Perfect Serpent. It is the "silver seed" or egg of the next world, the "Crystal of Atlantis" updated to 21st. Century specs. A single second in the timeless is all that divides our two worlds.

In ancient times it was written..."And the Sons of God, The Eternals, came down to the Daughters of Men, and took wives of all whom they chose..." HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF. Fellow daughters of earth, lets face it: Our minds have been impregnated by "The Sons of God" from the larger galaxies, and we can never be the same. We have been confirmed as the "Children of The One."

Appreciation of the Divine Comedy is the key to understanding Gods' HARVEST PROMOTION SCHEME. To survive on this planet we have to smarten up QUICK! According to the highest philosophical teachings, God regards the Universe as a joke. "If I am to be a fool, let me be a fool for The Master" is the commitment of the true metaphysician. This way you die laughing at human arrogance. God wants out of the box that human perception has nailed Him in. Crucifixion on the Solar Cross has deep esoteric meaning. He emerges from the underworld of consciousness as the NEW AEON OF GENESIS II.

The expansion-contraction phase of spiritual labour (rapid projection and reflection) is our initiation. The Earth is certainly in travail in all her LIVING CELLS who long for global harmony. Humanity reaches its highest technical achievement and lowest spiritual common denominator at the same time. We need to know both good and evil in order to properly nurture the Christ- Child we each bear within. This heavenly being to whom we give rebirth in the world of matter, is so beautiful, so intelligent, so perfect in every detail, that the agony of initiation fades before the bliss of delivery. (see Rev. 12)

"Why wear a metaphoric crown of thorns when our crown of Life awaits? Why live in the cave when you enjoy the best of all worlds and trip down the "Time Tunnel" to any point in our journey through space and time?" The Crown Life Assurance Company is waiting to make the trade, new lamps for old, new worlds for old. A new horizon beyond the seven seals which guard the Inner Kingdom.

The Cosmic Cube brings the people what they really want. THY KINGDOM COME! Once free of Super-Ego impositions, God is a cheerful sort of bloke; more Ho-ho than No-no. Once the Virgin Universe has covered the six points of the star which delineate the Divine Power structure, God's image changes. The "Bride" surrenders to the Cosmic Lover whose enormous stature is no longer forbidding to the virginal view. This was My Daddy Cave, the one I knew and loved in infancy, when I nestled on a footstool in the Throne Room of the King of Kings. Then, like all kids, I grew up in a way which befitted my celestial station.

Who is He that dares to break the hymen of Earth the vestal virgin? It is God The Cosmic Lover. Virgins with "Oil in their lamps" means longing in their hearts to find Him and to verify that IT IS GOOD!

COME ON GLOBAL MATHEMATICIANS! This is your digital exam. What is the cost of the VIOLENT SOCIETY? Come on Stephen Hawking, "Master of the Universe" your turn to bat: Physics in conjunction with METAPHYSICS... exoteric and esoteric worlds in an harmonic convergence. Lets get, filter the data, synchronise and apply solutions.

The prize is Deliverance from the infernal labyrinth and safe delivery of the Earth Child into the Kingdom of Heaven. Let us identify with the Mind of God, rather than with the form of man. We can prod around inside his Primal Organ with our technical binoculars. GOD WANTS US TO REVEL in the RAPTURE OF ITS HOLISTIC MIND.

Being born in the Northern Quadrant of the magnetic synchromesh was to be born in the Supersoil of the rich compost of the British version of the TREE OF LIFE. Each nation has its CHARIOT to pull, mine was the "Celtic Chariot." The Nordic Gods are a rough bunch to deal with; hard taskmasters. But then, that is their responsibility to the King of Kings. They pay their dues, with interest. So must we. That's how you win top honours in the Universal Hierarchy.

Once the wheel of karma stops, the roulette game is ended. The mobile and the fixed screen are in synchrony. Clear vision across our journey and into the future is the prize. The Chariot race of the Gods was long; the obstacle course intensive; not exactly what one might call "cricket". But the silt of putrification of the violent era is rich enough to produce the True Man and Woman with powerful Goodly Qualities. With such a magnificent crystal prism of perfection how could we fail?

WWII was based on the mystical promise of the Norse Gods and Germanic Myths of Northern Europe, as derived from twelfth century Icelandic legends. According to the Icelandic Mythraic Script, ODIN would rule the New World Order. Cool eh? This is where heat turns to light.

The range of all good and all evil is grist for the Mills of the Gods. This knowledge is what makes the equation E=mc3, 2+2=4, or (+1)+(-1)=0 a Living Reality. It is all done by mind-mirrors which are free of biased curvature. The etheric effect is like standing in the centre of an inverted ballroom mirror, able to focus on any one of 144 mirrors of zero curvature. I have done this many times.

(-1) is the static Universe which divides stillness, The Observer Goddess, into light waves. The Cube enables light waves to repeat themselves in the new sphere of cyberspace so that the spillover effect (The 100 Monkeys) can occur in the planetary mind, for inner radio works!

9.8 promotes Our Lord and Lady, and their modern entourage risen from the dead. Come Knights of Camelot, Come Viking Kings, Come Lords of Nordic Myth into Reality.

9.8 in the physics equation is where we turn light into weight into speed, it is the WEIGHT of the WORD that brings the Virgin Universe back down from hyperspace into the living Kingdom of God on Earth. THE WORD provides the solid building blocks of our stairway to the stars, and by the inversion process, THE WORD is what puts the New Earth back together again.

THE WORM OF HISTORY TURNS with the will of the people. Join with Ptaah to become the new cosmic egg that proceedeth out of the True and Perfect MEST-Snake Amun-Knepth, the common container of our whole human experience in matter, energy, space and time: The collective unconscious turned inside out and overt at the end of time as all things hidden are revealed.

Humanity can only take so much expansion and contraction before The Earth Child is born. The Whole Earth Resurrection of Christed Earth is our 4.2 Agenda. "Lift Up Your Heads O Ye Gates. And The King of Glory shall come in."

WE CAN DO IT! We who have the necessary whomp to manifest the vision. We, The People, arisen from gloom and doom. We who have switched direction; changed course; poleshifted the output of our energies from the bottomless pit of violence and shifting of blame, to an immediate positive active solution.

United, We The People, can move mountains and calm the raging sea. We invite all members of the media to prove that the pen is mightier than the sword; to rise up against the dominant savage brain; to change the course of world events from narrow tunnel vision to the new world vision manifest.

There is no light at the end of the tunnel of present violent political systems. But no power on earth stronger than the WILL OF THE COMMON PEOPLE. Let us turn from confusion to FUSION. Let us explore the DIVIDENDS of the logical mathematical alternative to chaos, namely MILLENNIUM.

Politicians are clearly unable to make the fundamental transition. Partial party politics only grind deeper in the black hole. Every generation that has gone before us has worked to make things better for their children. We are the only generation that will leave a path of natural poverty and privation for the next generation to inherit. Such stupidity is an insult to the human intelligence. War is the ultimate dehumanizing exaltation of the savage brain.

Every country claims a legitimate reason for arming for physical war. The REAL REASON is ECONOMICS. The present Global Superpower is in visible. The legal transition we have proposed in the Cosmic Cube is in keeping with the United Nations standing constitution.

The United States constitution grasps the reigns of the "New World Order". "We hold these Truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights". These are great words. This concept seems like a great way to begin our New World Charter, when Super power authority is transferred to its only rightful heir, The People of the United Earth Nation. There are no mountains to climb, only molehills. Just one small step for the USA and a giant leap for mankind. A legal transition from pittsville to Millennium could be completed in a single hour. Man! what a celebration!

We have nothing to loose and everything to gain by making this transition. All international arguments and agreements would be done up front before the League of Nations. Electronic Democracy will allow us to control the Whole Earth Army, the peace and restoration force to heal the ravages of tribal warfare. This would free all nations to come to grips with the real enemy. The REAL ENEMY is not "out there" its "in here". Inside our, and every other nations' infrastructure. It gets away with the invisible eating at our insides, because political ploys for avoiding issues are to point in the wrong direction. It is the oldest political trick in the world. Now the clock has stuck midnight.

Our concerted human strength can grapple with the now visible yet insidious monster that stalks our fair land. Nations are ravished by disease; emotionally and financially bankrupt; the ecology borders on a state of devastation. It is obvious that in a hi tec society there will be many fewer paid jobs for common men, but voluntary restoration of the planetary fabric to brand new Genesis II specs will consume much positive energy.

Violent Old-time politics were stuck in a rut. It passed the buck around and around in ever tightening circles. Signals sent out to invite the people to make positive suggestions get nowhere. But imagine the wave of confidence that would greet the announcement of the Millennium.

1000 years of Peace and Prosperity. That's enough time to balance the biological budget (our only real wealth), balance each national budget, wipe out all national debts, end the stress factor, eliminate disease and poverty, improve our education, remake our national infrastructures. Above all it will repair our collective human psyche. This road is paved with DIVIDENDS! It highlights a future that we can face with confidence.

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Global Media you have seen it all. You have the insight. You have the power to ignite the comet of our imagination and steer us in the right direction. You have the power of a brilliant headlight shining in the darkness. You have the power to show how Truth and Beauty can crown our civilization with moral victory. You can do it right and do it quickly.

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Global Media, lead us through the midnight passage and ignite the spark that will project us into the New Earth Era. Superbeings work smarter, not harder: Waste no energy on mixed signals or misplaced targets. Media, go to the limits of your creative imagination. Be a co-creator. Help erect the guidelines and build the New Earth Era. See 12.8 TELETHONS

WE NEED INTELLIGENT LEADERSHIP AND SOUND LOGISTICS: Salient solutions to get our feet on the ground in order to stop circling around in hyperspace.

The disarmament dividend for the human race is obvious. VIOLENCE is at the root of all our human woes. War is death to both the body and the soul. It is completely dehumanizing. Family breakup, child abuse, crime, educational apathy, are signs of the soul's distress. All world-minded citizens are invited to lend their utmost support to the promotional aspect of the New Heaven and the New Earth as tools for renewal.

DIVIDENDS! DIVIDENDS! DIVIDENDS! can only come for the Whole Earth Corporation, MEGANATION EARTH. We can balance national budgets, promote worldwide reforestation, end poverty and hunger, bring each culture to its epitome-supreme with the release of its IMMACULATE CONCEPTION from the mire of human desecration.

Spiritual wickedness in high places finally gets caught on the horns of a dilemma, as the Egyptian thesis predicts will happen at the time of the "Coming Forth by Day." At 9.8 Come Forth one and all, take up your stand! Promote Global Theocratic Democracy based on the declaration of human rights by the Peoples United Nations. PROMOTE the collection of OUR CORPORATE DIVIDENDS.



[link to www.eternalgodliness.com]
Although it is not true that all conservatives are stupid,
it is true that most stupid people are conservative.

John Stuart Mill
It's much harder to be a liberal than a conservative. Why?
Because it is easier to give someone the finger than a helping hand.
Mike Royko
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 13974964
United States
04/08/2012 09:19 PM
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be careful what you wish for

Anonymous Coward
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07/05/2017 10:04 PM
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The time has come.

Executive functions
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brain functions

Decision making
Executive functions
Natural language
Motor coordination
Problem solving

Mind and brain portal

v t e

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.[1] Executive functions include basic cognitive processes such as attentional control, cognitive inhibition, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility.[2][3] Higher order executive functions require the simultaneous use of multiple basic executive functions and include planning and fluid intelligence (i.e., reasoning and problem solving).[2][3]

Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life.[2] Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.[2] Both neuropsychological tests (e.g., the Stroop test) and rating scales (e.g., the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) are used to measure executive functions. They are usually performed as part of a more comprehensive assessment to diagnose neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Cognitive control and stimulus control, which is associated with operant and classical conditioning, represent opposite processes (i.e., internal vs external or environmental, respectively) that compete over the control of an individual's elicited behaviors;[4] in particular, inhibitory control is necessary for overriding stimulus-driven behavioral responses (i.e., stimulus control of behavior).[2] The prefrontal cortex is necessary but not solely sufficient for executive functions;[2][5][6] for example, the caudate nucleus and subthalamic nucleus also have a role in mediating inhibitory control.[2][7]

Cognitive control is impaired in addiction,[7] attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,[2][7] and a number of other central nervous system disorders. Stimulus-driven behavioral responses that are associated with a particular rewarding stimulus tend to dominate one's behavior in an addiction.[7]


1 Neuroanatomy
2 Hypothesized role
3 Historical perspective
4 Development
4.1 Early childhood
4.2 Preadolescence
4.3 Adolescence
4.4 Adulthood
5 Models
5.1 Top-down inhibitory control
5.2 Working memory model
5.3 Supervisory attentional system (SAS)
5.4 Self-regulatory model
5.5 Problem-solving model
5.6 Lezak's conceptual model
5.7 Miller & Cohen's model
5.8 Miyake and Friedman's model
5.9 Banich's "Cascade of control" model
6 Assessment
7 Experimental evidence
7.1 Context-sensitivity of PFC neurons
7.2 Attentional biasing in sensory regions
7.3 Connectivity between the PFC and sensory regions
7.4 Bilingualism and executive functions
8 In disease
9 Future directions
10 See also
11 References
12 External links


Historically, the executive functions have been seen as regulated by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, but it is still a matter of ongoing debate if that really is the case.[5] Even though articles on prefrontal lobe lesions commonly refer to disturbances of executive functions and vice versa, a review found indications for the sensitivity but not for the specificity of executive function measures to frontal lobe functioning. This means that both frontal and non-frontal brain regions are necessary for intact executive functions. Probably the frontal lobes need to participate in basically all of the executive functions, but it is not the only brain structure involved.[5]

Neuroimaging and lesion studies have identified the functions which are most often associated with the particular regions of the prefrontal cortex.[5]

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved with "on-line" processing of information such as integrating different dimensions of cognition and behaviour.[8] As such, this area has been found to be associated with verbal and design fluency, ability to maintain and shift set, planning, response inhibition, working memory, organisational skills, reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking.[5][9]

Side view of the brain, illustrating dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in emotional drives, experience and integration.[8] Associated cognitive functions include inhibition of inappropriate responses, decision making and motivated behaviours. Lesions in this area can lead to low drive states such as apathy, abulia or akinetic mutism and may also result in low drive states for such basic needs as food or drink and possibly decreased interest in social or vocational activities and sex.[8][10]
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a key role in impulse control, maintenance of set, monitoring ongoing behaviour and socially appropriate behaviours.[8] The orbitofrontal cortex also has roles in representing the value of rewards based on sensory stimuli and evaluating subjective emotional experiences.[11] Lesions can cause disinhibition, impulsivity, aggressive outbursts, sexual promiscuity and antisocial behaviour.[5]

Furthermore, in their review, Alvarez and Emory state that: "The frontal lobes have multiple connections to cortical, subcortical and brain stem sites. The basis of 'higher-level' cognitive functions such as inhibition, flexibility of thinking, problem solving, planning, impulse control, concept formation, abstract thinking, and creativity often arise from much simpler, 'lower-level' forms of cognition and behavior. Thus, the concept of executive function must be broad enough to include anatomical structures that represent a diverse and diffuse portion of the central nervous system."[5]

The cerebellum also appears to be involved in mediating certain executive functions.[12][13]
Hypothesized role

The executive system is thought to be heavily involved in handling novel situations outside the domain of some of our 'automatic' psychological processes that could be explained by the reproduction of learned schemas or set behaviors. Psychologists Don Norman and Tim Shallice have outlined five types of situations in which routine activation of behavior would not be sufficient for optimal performance:[14][page needed]

Those that involve planning or decision making
Those that involve error correction or troubleshooting
Situations where responses are not well-rehearsed or contain novel sequences of actions
Dangerous or technically difficult situations
Situations that require the overcoming of a strong habitual response or resisting temptation.

A prepotent response is a response for which immediate reinforcement (positive or negative) is available or has been previously associated with that response.[15][page needed] The executive functions are often invoked when it is necessary to override these prepotent responses that might otherwise be automatically elicited by stimuli in the external environment. For example, on being presented with a potentially rewarding stimulus, such as a tasty piece of chocolate cake, a person might have the automatic response to take a bite. However, where such behavior conflicts with internal plans (such as having decided not to eat chocolate cake while on a diet), the executive functions might be engaged to inhibit that response.

Although suppression of these prepotent responses is ordinarily considered adaptive, problems for the development of the individual and the culture arise when feelings of right and wrong are overridden by cultural expectations or when creative impulses are overridden by executive inhibitions.[16][page needed]
Historical perspective

Although research into the executive functions and their neural basis has increased markedly over recent years, the theoretical framework in which it is situated is not new. In the 1940s, the British psychologist Donald Broadbent drew a distinction between "automatic" and "controlled" processes (a distinction characterized more fully by Shiffrin and Schneider in 1977),[17] and introduced the notion of selective attention, to which executive functions are closely allied. In 1975, the US psychologist Michael Posner used the term "cognitive control" in his book chapter entitled "Attention and cognitive control".[18]

The work of influential researchers such as Michael Posner, Joaquin Fuster, Tim Shallice, and their colleagues in the 1980s (and later Trevor Robbins, Bob Knight, Don Stuss, and others) laid much of the groundwork for recent research into executive functions. For example, Posner proposed that there is a separate "executive" branch of the attentional system, which is responsible for focusing attention on selected aspects of the environment.[19] The British neuropsychologist Tim Shallice similarly suggested that attention is regulated by a "supervisory system", which can override automatic responses in favour of scheduling behaviour on the basis of plans or intentions.[20] Throughout this period, a consensus emerged that this control system is housed in the most anterior portion of the brain, the prefrontal cortex (PFC).

Psychologist Alan Baddeley had proposed a similar system as part of his model of working memory[21] and argued that there must be a component (which he named the "central executive") that allows information to be manipulated in short-term memory (for example, when doing mental arithmetic).
Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Cognitive control and memory

When studying executive functions, a developmental framework is helpful because these abilities mature at different rates over time. Some abilities peak maturation rate in late childhood or adolescence while others' progress into early adulthood. The brain continues to mature and develop connections well into adulthood. A person's executive function abilities are shaped by both physical changes in the brain and by life experiences, in the classroom and in the world at large. Furthermore, executive functioning development corresponds to the neurophysiological developments of the growing brain; as the processing capacity of the frontal lobes and other interconnected regions increases, the core executive functions emerge.[22][23] As these functions are established, they continue to mature, sometimes in spurts, while other, more complex functions also develop, underscoring the different directions along which each component might develop.[22][23]
Early childhood

Inhibitory control and working memory act as basic executive functions that makes it possible for more complex executive functions like problem-solving to develop.[24] Inhibitory control and working memory are among the earliest executive functions to appear, with initial signs observed in infants, 7 to 12-months old.[22][23] Then in the preschool years, children display a spurt in performance on tasks of inhibition and working memory, usually between the ages of 3 to 5 years.[22][25] Also during this time, cognitive flexibility, goal-directed behavior, and planning begin to develop.[22] Nevertheless, preschool children do not have fully mature executive functions and continue to make errors related to these emerging abilities often not due to the absence of the abilities, but rather because they lack the awareness to know when and how to use particular strategies in particular contexts.[26]

Preadolescent children continue to exhibit certain growth spurts in executive functions, suggesting that this development does not necessarily occur in a linear manner, along with the preliminary maturing of particular functions as well.[22][23] During preadolescence, children display major increases in verbal working memory;[27] goal-directed behavior (with a potential spurt around 12 years of age);[28] response inhibition and selective attention;[29] and strategic planning and organizational skills.[23][30][31] Additionally, between the ages of 8 to 10, cognitive flexibility in particular begins to match adult levels.[30][31] However, similar to patterns in childhood development, executive functioning in preadolescents is limited because they do not reliably apply these executive functions across multiple contexts as a result of ongoing development of inhibitory control.[22]

Many executive functions may begin in childhood and preadolescence, such as inhibitory control. Yet, it is during adolescence when the different brain systems become better integrated. At this time, youth implement executive functions, such as inhibitory control, more efficiently and effectively and improve throughout this time period.[32][33] Just as inhibitory control emerges in childhood and improves over time, planning and goal-directed behavior also demonstrate an extended time course with ongoing growth over adolescence.[25][28] Likewise, functions such as attentional control, with a potential spurt at age 15,[28] along with working memory,[32] continue developing at this stage.

The major change that occurs in the brain in adulthood is the constant myelination of neurons in the prefrontal cortex.[22] At age 20-29, executive functioning skills are at their peak, which allows people of this age to participate in some of the most challenging mental tasks. These skills begin to decline in later adulthood. Working memory and spatial span are areas where decline is most readily noted. Cognitive flexibility, however has a late onset of impairment and does not usually start declining until around age 70 in normally functioning adults.[22] Impaired executive functioning has been found to be the best predictor of functional decline in the elderly.
Top-down inhibitory control

Aside from facilitatory or amplificatory mechanisms of control, many authors have argued for inhibitory mechanisms in the domain of response control,[34] memory,[35] selective attention,[36] theory of mind,[37][38] emotion regulation,[39] as well as social emotions such as empathy.[40] A recent review on this topic argues that active inhibition is a valid concept in some domains of psychology/cognitive control.[41]
Working memory model

One influential model is Baddeley's multicomponent model of working memory, which is composed of a central executive system that regulates three other subsystems: the phonological loop, which maintains verbal information; the visuospatial sketchpad, which maintains visual and spatial information; and the more recently developed episodic buffer that integrates short-term and long-term memory, holding and manipulating a limited amount of information from multiple domains in temporal and spatially sequenced episodes.[21][42]
Supervisory attentional system (SAS)

Another conceptual model is the supervisory attentional system (SAS).[43][44] In this model, contention scheduling is the process where an individual's well-established schemas automatically respond to routine situations while executive functions are used when faced with novel situations. In these new situations, attentional control will be a crucial element to help generate new schema, implement these schema, and then assess their accuracy.
Self-regulatory model

Russell Barkley proposed a widely known model of executive functioning that is based on self-regulation[disambiguation needed]. Primarily derived from work examining behavioral inhibition, it views executive functions as composed of four main abilities.[45] One element is working memory that allows individuals to resist interfering information. A second component is the management of emotional responses in order to achieve goal-directed behaviors. Thirdly, internalization of self-directed speech is used to control and sustain rule-governed behavior and to generate plans for problem-solving. Lastly, information is analyzed and synthesized into new behavioral responses to meet one's goals. Changing one's behavioral response to meet a new goal or modify an objective is a higher level skill that requires a fusion of executive functions including self-regulation, and accessing prior knowledge and experiences.

According to this model, the executive system of the human brain provides for the cross-temporal organization of behavior towards goals and the future and coordinates actions and strategies for everyday goal-directed tasks. Essentially, this system permits humans to self-regulate their behavior so as to sustain action and problem solving toward goals specifically and the future more generally. Thus, executive function deficits pose serious problems for a person's ability to engage in self-regulation over time to attain their goals and anticipate and prepare for the future.[46]
Problem-solving model

Yet another model of executive functions is a problem-solving framework where executive functions is considered a macroconstruct composed of subfunctions working in different phases to (a) represent a problem, (b) plan for a solution by selecting and ordering strategies, (c) maintain the strategies in short-term memory in order to perform them by certain rules, and then (d) evaluate the results with error detection and error correction.[47]

[link to en.wikipedia.org (secure)]