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YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?

 
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1336668
Australia
04/10/2011 11:15 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
...


you're acting like a tard. rolleyes
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668
Tell me how so...I will correct that.
Oh thats right ...you cant.
 Quoting: RememberThis




you haven't answered my questions.

when do you plan on leaving the safety of your home, or will you just bunker down forever in case THE NUCLEAR MEGA PLUME OF DEATH get's ya?
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


Im old...already have 4 incurables.
I could give a rats ass about myself, I will take KI as I see fit but other than that I will change nothing.
Its already to late for me and many others, but I still will go out and smile at folks and live my life.

I was repeatedly irradiated as a child along with millions of my fellow citizens by nuclear testing.
I live near "Rocky Flats"
I have lived in Vegas where tap water has tritium.


I just want this to end, all of it. As its the kids that pay.
Thats who I care about.
The species.

Does that answer your question or do you want to discuss MRI's some more?
 Quoting: RememberThis



violin
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1170246
Canada
04/10/2011 11:16 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
The fallout models up to today... they are not that pretty.

[link to www.woweather.com]

And to those who would say Im fearmongering.. let me ask you this...

Is a tornado warning/watch fear mongering ?

Is a tsunami warning fear mongering?

Is a cyclone/hurricane warning fear mongering?

Is knowldege in anyway shape or form fear mongering?

I say no.

I also say that if this cloud was coming to Australia your snivelling ass would be the first to shit itself and be crying for help.

If this was happening to australia I would be organising protests, media and internet floods of information, I would be contacting schools and speakign to the youth of my country and asking them if they are happy about the fact that this disaster has just fucked the world the are to inherit and how do they feel about that.

I am not spreading fear.. Im trying to get people to get out of the lukewarm pot on the stove and realise they are being systematically cooked
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer


warning of a cancer comming to a home near you is fucking different than a tornado warning.

and the links you provide are hardly good sorces.

pppfffttttttrttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


So your saying you would rather not know your being poisoned?

You would rather they lie to you and tell you everything is hunky dory?

My brother died of cancer so I know first hand what a horrible and prolonged painful death it is, as do many people who have watched a loved one die from this horrible disease..

And your quite happy to just stay in the dark about it?

Thats your choice.. but im sure there are many who dont want to be left in the dark..

Im sure there are many mothers and fathers who do not want to willingly have their children breath or injest something they know will kill them

Im sure these mothers and fathers dont want to sit at their dying childs bedside for months on end through kemo visits, loss of hair, appetite and watch them waste away to nothing and in horrible pain..

Thats what my parents went through... thats what I went through

So ok fine.. ignore it.. thats your choice.. but do not prevent OTHER people who want to know from accessing information.

And if you have better links dear then by all means post them.
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer
First I find it irritating that people always have to equate America with the shit show American Idol. Second let's say we do what you say about going on strike. WTF?? I survived pancreatic cancer. Guess what? Everyone dies some die. Your stupid strike WILL NOT stop the radiation. If everyone panics you will have more non-radiation deaths than from the radiation.

This board is full of pussies like you. EVERYONE dies! Why are you so scared of the inevitable? Enjoy live. You're only here once!!
 Quoting: lptl081


You know something, I've worked directly with the dying. The ones that were filled with bravado & had not done any mental or spiritual preperation were the ones that took the longest to let go......they kept hanging by a thread, terrified because they did not know anything about dying or where they were going. The quiet & peaceful ones were the ones who had a quick & peaceful passing & who had done preparation beforehand. They had made peace with everyone & were ready to go beyond this life. The first group lived in denial about their illness & frequently thumping their chests about how they were going home soon. Yea, they went home alright, not to where they thought.
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 739494
United States
04/10/2011 11:17 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
...
Tell me how so...I will correct that.
Oh thats right ...you cant.
 Quoting: RememberThis




you haven't answered my questions.

when do you plan on leaving the safety of your home, or will you just bunker down forever in case THE NUCLEAR MEGA PLUME OF DEATH get's ya?
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


Im old...already have 4 incurables.
I could give a rats ass about myself, I will take KI as I see fit but other than that I will change nothing.
Its already to late for me and many others, but I still will go out and smile at folks and live my life.

I was repeatedly irradiated as a child along with millions of my fellow citizens by nuclear testing.
I live near "Rocky Flats"
I have lived in Vegas where tap water has tritium.


I just want this to end, all of it. As its the kids that pay.
Thats who I care about.
The species.

Does that answer your question or do you want to discuss MRI's some more?
 Quoting: RememberThis



violin
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


Perfect response...from a child
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1084545
United States
04/10/2011 11:17 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
This is an agent provocature, a person who wants the truth to go away, take agood look at their behaviour after a while you will be able to pick them out easily!

propogandastfu


STFU fear mongering self obsessed attention whoring idiot.



you should be ashamed of yourself. granny
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1084545
United States
04/10/2011 11:19 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
This is a truly concerned person, someone who knows a lie when they see one. It's people like this that will save the world for the future of our children. Thank you for your bravery and honest perspective. You are absolutely right to feel the way you do!!

Im going to repost something I said in one of the Fuku threads.. because I just can not believe that americans are going to just sit around and let themselves be murdered.

Quote:

I just want to ask why people say "its 400 times over the normal radiation safe levels... so not so bad as thought"

W.T.F?????

I am just shocked, disgusted, overwhelmed by the sheer ignorance of so many people in this world.. what is wrong with everyone who says "its not that bad"..

Actually, I just got the answer... the worlds population has been manipulated to accept INSTANT GRATIFICATION in everything including disasters.. slow dangerous deadly events like the gulf take too long for the ADD population.. give us doom in two days or our attention span wanes..

Its so sad and pathetic.

I want to know why the entire west coast of america has not protested this bullshit.

Why has no one stood up over there and said enough is enough..??

What did your ancestors do ? Oh thats right they fought against oppression and tyranny...you know I dont think it was america.. I think that the founding fathers must be a fairytale.. coz they sure didnt leave any of their dna in the current gene pool..

Do you need an idea .. here is one.. strike.. the entire country.. or in the very least.. the west coast. Go ON STRIKE.. refuse to go to work, school, refuse to go out and shop, to go to a coffee shop or a bar, FOR ONE LOUSY DAY..

Surely there is some one on the west coast of america who can begin a movement and pick a day in say the next two weeks or so and get this movement viral?

For fucks sake you can get 30 million to vote on idol but you dont think you can get people to stop and stay indoors for one single lousy 24 hour period???

Home of the free and land of the brave? Not since 1850..

Come On America... DO SOMETHING!!!..

MAKE A STAND, DO SOMETHING TO TELL THEM YOU WILL NOT STAND FOR THIS ANYMORE.. WHAT IS WRONG WITH YOU, YOU'RE BEING SLOWLY MURDERED AND YOU'RE SITTING THERE DOING NOTHING ...
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1336668
Australia
04/10/2011 11:20 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
This is an agent provocature, a person who wants the truth to go away, take agood look at their behaviour after a while you will be able to pick them out easily!

propogandastfu


STFU fear mongering self obsessed attention whoring idiot.



you should be ashamed of yourself. granny
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668

 Quoting: Truevoiceman


still waiting for the data from THE MEGA RADIOACTIVE BLOOD CURDLING NUCLEAR PLUME OF DEATH OP
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 1336903
United States
04/10/2011 11:21 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
STFU fear mongering self obsessed attention whoring idiot.



you should be ashamed of yourself. granny
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


They evacuate a nuclear plant in Washington state over a 6 inch puff of smoke. I don't think the population mongers fear any more than the PTB do.
Brainsdonthurtabit

User ID: 20901
United States
04/10/2011 11:21 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
STFU fear mongering self obsessed attention whoring idiot.



you should be ashamed of yourself. granny
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


REMEMBER NANKING!!!!! WHEN YOU KILL THE INNOCENT GOD DOESN'T FORGET AND HE WILL TAKE YOURS AS PAYMENT OF DEBT!!!

Nanking Massacre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Rape of Nanking" redirects here. For Iris Chang's book, see The Rape of Nanking (book).
"Nankin Jiken" redirects here. For the 1927 Nankin Jiken, see Nanjing Incident.Nanking Massacre

Massacre victims on the shore of Yangtze River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 南京大屠殺
Simplified Chinese 南京大屠杀
[show]
Transliterations

Japanese name
Kanji 南京大虐殺
[show]
Transliterations

Nanking Massacrev · d · e
Battle of Nanking (1937)
Nanking Safety Zone

International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone
Japanese war crimes
Contest to kill 100 people using a sword

International Military Tribunal for the Far East Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal
Historiography of the Nanking Massacre
Nanking Massacre denial

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall
Japanese history textbook controversies
Films
The Battle of China
Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre
City of Life and Death
Don't Cry, Nanking
John Rabe
Nanking
Tokyo Trial
The Truth about Nanjing
Books
American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking
The Good Man of Nanking
The Rape of Nanking
Tokyo


The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, up to hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped[1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.[2][3][4]

The massacre remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists,[3] who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.

An accurate estimation of the death toll in the massacre is never achieved because most of the Japanese military records on the killings were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945. The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates more than 200,000 casualties in the incident;[5] China's official estimate is about 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Estimates from Japanese historians vary widely, in the vicinity of 40,000–200,000. Some Japanese scholars even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. These negationists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda.[6][7]

Although the Japanese government has admitted the acts of the killing of a large number of noncombatants, looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking,[8][9] some Japanese officials have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre (and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings) has become a staple of Japanese nationalism.[10] In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright.[10] Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations.[11]Contents [hide]
1 Military situation
1.1 Relocation of the Chinese capital
1.2 Strategy for the defense of Nanking
2 Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army
2.1 Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking
2.2 Flight of Chinese civilians
2.3 Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone
2.4 Prince Asaka appointed as commander
3 Battle of Nanking
3.1 Siege of the city
3.2 Demand for surrender
3.3 Assault and capture of Nanking
3.4 Pursuit and mopping-up operations
4 Massacre
4.1 Rape
4.2 Murder of civilians
4.3 Execution of Chinese POWs
4.4 Theft and arson
4.5 Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners
4.6 Causes
5 Matsui's reaction to the massacre
6 End of the massacre
7 Recall of Matsui and Asaka
8 Death toll estimates
8.1 Range and duration
8.2 Various estimates
9 War crimes tribunals
9.1 Grant of immunity to Prince Asaka
9.2 Evidence and testimony
9.3 Matsui's defense
9.4 Verdict
9.5 Sentence
10 Memorials
11 Controversy
11.1 Cold War
11.2 Debate in Japan
11.3 Apology and condolences by the prime minister and emperor of Japan
11.4 Denial of the massacre by the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan
12 Legacy
12.1 Effect on international relations
12.2 As a component of national identity
12.3 Japan
12.4 China
13 In the media
13.1 Music
13.2 Novels
13.3 Non-fiction
13.4 Films
13.5 TV series
13.6 Records
14 See also
15 Notes
16 References
17 Further reading
18 External links

[edit]
Military situation

In August 1937, the Japanese army invaded Shanghai and there they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.
[edit]
Relocation of the Chinese capital

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang Kai-shek's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China's vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.[12]

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.
[edit]
Strategy for the defense of Nanking

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe.

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders, many of whom were killed during the defense of the city and subsequent Japanese occupation that followed.
[edit]
Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army
[edit]
Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking

One of articles on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings".[13]

Sword used in the "contest" on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei, Taiwan

Although the Nanking Massacre is generally described as having occurred over a six-week period after the fall of Nanking, the crimes committed by the Japanese army were not limited to that period. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanking.

According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, "The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanking quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish."[14]

Novelist Ishikawa Tatsuzo vividly described how the 16th Division of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force committed atrocities on the march between Shanghai and Nanking in his novel Ikiteiru Heitai [Living Soldiers], which was based on interviews that Tatsuzo conducted with troops in Nanking during January 1938.[15]

Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers as reported in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and the English language Japan Advertiser. The contest was covered much like a sporting event with regular updates on the score over a series of days.[16][17] In Japan, the veracity of the newspaper article about the contest was the subject of ferocious debate for several decades starting in 1967.[18]

In 2000, historian Bob Wakabayashi concurred with certain Japanese scholars who had argued that the contest was a concocted story, with the collusion of the soldiers themselves for the purpose of raising the national fighting spirit.[19] In 2005, a Tokyo district judge dismissed a suit by the families of the lieutenants, stating that "the lieutenants admitted the fact that they raced to kill 100 people" and that the story cannot be proven to be clearly false.[20] The judge also ruled against the civil claim of the plaintiffs because the original article was more than 60 years old.[21] The historicity of the event remains disputed in Japan.[22]
[edit]
Flight of Chinese civilians

As the Japanese army drew closer to Nanjing, Chinese civilians fled the city in droves. The people of Nanking fled in panic not only because of the dangers of the anticipated battle but also because they feared the deprivation inherent in the scorched earth strategy that the Chinese troops were implementing in the area surrounding the city.[citation needed]

On July 31, the Kuomintang (KMT) had issued a statement that they were determined to turn every Chinese national and every piece of their soil into ash, rather than turn them over to the opponent. The Nanking garrison force set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates.[citation needed] Targets within and outside of the city walls—such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages—were burnt to cinders, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million (1937) US dollars.[23][24][25]
[edit]
Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone
Main article: Nanking Safety Zone

Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army approached Nanking, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners. Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December 16. 15 of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone.[26] German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, in part because of his status as a member of the Nazi party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact.

The Committee established the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city. The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces, and the members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area.

On December 1, 1937, Nanking Mayor Ma Chao-chun ordered all Chinese citizens remaining in Nanking to move into the “Safety Zone”. Many fled the city on December 7, and the International Committee took over as the de facto government of Nanking.
[edit]
Prince Asaka appointed as commander

Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1940

Head of a Chinese man beheaded by Japanese, is wedged in a barricade near Nanking just before the fall of the city.[27]

In a memorandum for the palace rolls, Hirohito had singled Prince Asaka Yasuhiko out for censure as the one imperial kinsman whose attitude was "not good." He assigned Asaka to Nanking as an opportunity to make amends.[28]

On December 5, Asaka left Tokyo by plane and arrived at the front three days later. Asaka met with division commanders, lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa, who informed him that the Japanese troops had almost completely surrounded three hundred thousand Chinese troops in the vicinity of Nanking and that preliminary negotiations suggested that the Chinese were ready to surrender.[29]

Prince Asaka allegedly issued an order to "kill all captives," thus providing official sanction for the crimes which took place during and after the battle.[30] Some authors record that Prince Asaka signed the order for Japanese soldiers in Nanking to "kill all captives"[31] Others claim that lieutenant colonel Isamu Chō, Asaka's aide-de-camp, sent this order under the Prince's sign manual without the Prince's knowledge or assent.[32] However, even if Chō took the initiative on his own, Prince Asaka, who was nominally the officer in charge, gave no orders to stop the carnage. When General Matsui arrived in the city four days after the massacre had begun, he issued strict orders that resulted in the eventual end of the massacre.

While the extent of Prince Asaka's responsibility for the massacre remains a matter of debate, the ultimate sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China were issued in the Emperor Hirohito's ratification of the Japanese army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners on August 5, 1937.[33]
[edit]
Battle of Nanking
Main article: Battle of Nanking
[edit]
Siege of the city

On December 7, the Japanese army issued a command to all troops, advising that because occupying a foreign capital was an unprecedented event for the Japanese military, those soldiers who "[commit] any illegal acts", "dishonor the Japanese Army", "loot", or "cause a fire to break out, even because of their carelessness" would be severely punished.[34]

The Japanese military continued to move forward, breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance, and arriving outside the walled city of Nanking on December 9.
[edit]
Demand for surrender

At noon on December 9, the military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the surrender of Nanking within 24 hours, promising annihilation if refused.[35][36]

Meanwhile, members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone contacted Tang and suggested a plan for three-day cease-fire, during which the Chinese troops could withdraw without fighting while the Japanese troops would stay in their present position.

General Tang agreed with this proposal if the International Committee could acquire permission of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who had already fled to Hankow to which he had temporarily shifted the military headquarters two days earlier.

German businessman and chairman of the International Committee, John Rabe, boarded the U.S. gunboat Panay on Dec. 9 and sent two telegrams, one to Chiang Kai-shek by way of the American ambassador in Hankow, and one to the Japanese military authority in Shanghai. The next day he was informed that Chiang Kai-shek, who had ordered that Nanking be defended "to the last man," had refused to accept the proposal.[citation needed]
[edit]
Assault and capture of Nanking

Iwane Matsui enters Nanking

The Japanese awaited an answer to their demand for surrender but no response was received from the Chinese by the noon deadline on December 10. General Matsui Iwane waited another hour before issuing the command to take Nanking by force. The Japanese army mounted its assault on the Nanking walls from multiple directions; the SEF’s 16th Division attacked three gates on the eastern side, the 6th Division of the 10A launched its offensive on the western walls, and the SEF’s 9th Division advanced into the area in-between.[12]

On December 12, after two days of Japanese attack, under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment, General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat. What followed was nothing short of chaos. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in, and many others were shot by the Chinese supervisory unit as they tried to flee.[23]

On the 13th of December, the 6th and the 116th Divisions of the Japanese Army were the first to enter the city, facing little military resistance. Simultaneously, the 9th Division entered nearby Guanghua Gate, and the 16th Division entered the Zhongshan and Taiping gates. That same afternoon, two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River. Nanking fell to the Japanese by nightfall.[citation needed]
[edit]
Pursuit and mopping-up operations

Soldiers from the Imperial Japanese Army enter Nanking in January 1938

Japanese troops pursued the retreating Chinese army units, primarily in the Xiakuan area to the north of the city walls and around the Zijin Mountain in the east. Although the popular narrative suggests that the final phase of the battle consisted of a one-sided slaughter of Chinese troops by the Japanese, some Japanese historians maintain that the remaining Chinese military still posed a serious threat to the Japanese. Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, SEF commander, told a war correspondent later that he was in a very perilous position when his headquarters was ambushed by Chinese forces that were in the midst of retreating from Nanking east of the city. On the other side of the city, the 11th Company of the 45th Regiment encountered some 20,000 Chinese soldiers who were making their way from Xiakuan.[12]

The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanking Safety Zone. Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated, the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone. The safety zone, an area of 3.85 square kilometers, was literally packed with the remaining population of Nanking. The Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate alleged plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians.[12]
[edit]
Massacre

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre.[citation needed]

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy.[citation needed]
[edit]
Rape

Photo taken in Xuzhou, showing the body of a woman profaned in a similar way to the teenager described in case 5 of John Magee's movie.

Case 5 of John Magee's film: on December 13, 1937, about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but 2 Chinese of 11 in the house at No. 5 Xinlukou. A woman and her two teenager daughters were raped, and Japanese rammed a bottle and a cane in the vagina. An eight-year old girl was stabbed but she and her younger sister survived. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by an elderly woman shown in the photo. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the photo.[37][38]

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly.[39] A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped.[40] The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation[41] or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo,[42] or other objects into the vagina. Young children were not exempt from these atrocities, and were cut open to allow Japanese soldiers to rape them.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary:

I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet ... People are hysterical ... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.[43]

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson, a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms".[44]

Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family:

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live.[45]

In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe, wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. For the 17th December:

Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital ... Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.[46]

There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest.[47] Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women.
[edit]
Murder of civilians

A boy was killed by Japanese with a butt of a rifle, because he did not take off his hat.

On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary:

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (...) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.[48]

On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese .... One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.[49]

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.[50]

Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings, testified:

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely ... The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.[51]

According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani, 'The Army used a trumpet sound that meant "Kill all Chinese who run away"'.[52] Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the "Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch", a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide. Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.[53]
[edit]
Execution of Chinese POWs

On August 6, 1937, Hirohito had personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoner of war".[54]

A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre.

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed.[citation needed]

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.[55]

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele, American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times, made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times, he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children.[56]

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the U.S. State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was "forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier" and "roasted his heart and liver and ate them".[57]
[edit]
Theft and arson

One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. According to reports, Japanese troops torched newly-built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike. The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanking meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit. This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary.[58]

On 17 December, John Rabe wrote as chairman a complaint to Kiyoshi Fukui, second secretary of the Japanese Embassy. The following is an excerpt:

In other words, on the 13th when your troops entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat ... All 27 Occidentals in the city at that time and our Chinese population were totally surprised by the reign of robbery, raping and killing initiated by your soldiers on the 14th. All we are asking in our protest is that you restore order among your troops and get the normal life city going as soon as possible. In the latter process we are glad to cooperate in any way we can. But even last night between 8 and 9 p.m. when five Occidentals members of our staff and Committee toured the Zone to observe conditions, we did not find any single Japanese patrol either in the Zone or at the entrances![59]
[edit]
Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners

The Japanese troops did respect the Zone to an extent; no shells entered that part of the city leading up to the Japanese occupation except a few stray shots. During the chaos following the attack of the city, some were killed in the Safety Zone, but the crimes that took place in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts.

The Japanese soldiers committed actions in the Safety Zone that were part of the larger Nanking Massacre. The International Committee appealed a number of times to the Japanese army, with John Rabe using his credentials as a NSDAP member, but to no avail. Rabe wrote that from time to time the Japanese would enter the Safety Zone at will, carry off a few hundred men and women, and either summarily execute them or rape and then kill them.[60]

By February 5, 1938, the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder, rape, and general disorder by Japanese soldiers that had been reported after the American, British and German diplomats had returned to their embassies.[61]
"Case 5- On the night of December 14th, there were many cases of Japanese soldiers entering houses and raping women or taking them away. This created panic in the area and hundreds of women moved into the Gingling College campus yesterday."[61]
"Case 10- On the night of December 15th, a number of Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot, some by six men."[61]
"Case 13 – December 18, 4 p.m., at No. 18 I Ho Lu, Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated, one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live."[61]
"Case 14 – On December 16th, seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College. Five returned. Each girl was raped six or seven times daily- reported December 18th."[61]
"Case 15 – There are about 540 refugees crowded in #83 and 85 on Canton Road... More than 30 women and girls have been raped. The women and children are crying all nights. Conditions inside the compound are worse than we can describe. Please give us help."[61]
"Case 16- A Chinese girl named Loh, who, with her mother and brother, was living in one of the Refugee Centers in the Refugee Zone, was shot through the head and killed by a Japanese soldier. The girl was 14 years old. The incident occurred near the Kuling Ssu, a noted temple on the border of the Refugee zone (...)"[61]
"Case 19 – January 30th, about 5 p.m. Mr. Sone (of the Nanking Theological Seminary) was greeted by several hundred women pleading with him that they would not have to go home on February 4th. They said it was no use going home they might just as well be killed for staying at the camp as to be raped, robbed or killed at home. (...) One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. She said she was too old. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. But she survived to come back."[61]

It is said that Rabe rescued between 200,000 – 250,000 Chinese people.[62] [63]
[edit]
Causes

"There is no obvious explanation for this grim event, nor can one be found. The Japanese soldiers, who had expected easy victory, instead had been fighting hard for months and had taken infinitely higher casualties than anticipated. They were bored, angry, frustrated, tired. The Chinese women were undefended, their menfolk powerless or absent. The war, still undeclared, had no clear-cut goal or purpose. Perhaps all Chinese, regardless of sex or age, seemed marked out as victims.".[64]
 Quoting: APOLLO 1324393



On a smaller level...Thats what the Yanks did in Vietnam and Cambodia.
Romney has a Swiss bank account and you have a double-wide. The American Dream! Vote for You Dummy!
Anonymous Coward
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This is a truly concerned person, someone who knows a lie when they see one. It's people like this that will save the world for the future of our children. Thank you for your bravery and honest perspective. You are absolutely right to feel the way you do!!

 Quoting: Truevoiceman




1rof1
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ahhhsiren2anaanaanaanaanaanaanaanaseal
Brainsdonthurtabit

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...


warning of a cancer comming to a home near you is fucking different than a tornado warning.

and the links you provide are hardly good sorces.

pppfffttttttrttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


So your saying you would rather not know your being poisoned?

You would rather they lie to you and tell you everything is hunky dory?

My brother died of cancer so I know first hand what a horrible and prolonged painful death it is, as do many people who have watched a loved one die from this horrible disease..

And your quite happy to just stay in the dark about it?

Thats your choice.. but im sure there are many who dont want to be left in the dark..

Im sure there are many mothers and fathers who do not want to willingly have their children breath or injest something they know will kill them

Im sure these mothers and fathers dont want to sit at their dying childs bedside for months on end through kemo visits, loss of hair, appetite and watch them waste away to nothing and in horrible pain..

Thats what my parents went through... thats what I went through

So ok fine.. ignore it.. thats your choice.. but do not prevent OTHER people who want to know from accessing information.

And if you have better links dear then by all means post them.
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer
First I find it irritating that people always have to equate America with the shit show American Idol. Second let's say we do what you say about going on strike. WTF?? I survived pancreatic cancer. Guess what? Everyone dies some die. Your stupid strike WILL NOT stop the radiation. If everyone panics you will have more non-radiation deaths than from the radiation.

This board is full of pussies like you. EVERYONE dies! Why are you so scared of the inevitable? Enjoy live. You're only here once!!
 Quoting: lptl081


You know something, I've worked directly with the dying. The ones that were filled with bravado & had not done any mental or spiritual preperation were the ones that took the longest to let go......they kept hanging by a thread, terrified because they did not know anything about dying or where they were going. The quiet & peaceful ones were the ones who had a quick & peaceful passing & who had done preparation beforehand. They had made peace with everyone & were ready to go beyond this life. The first group lived in denial about their illness & frequently thumping their chests about how they were going home soon. Yea, they went home alright, not to where they thought.
 Quoting: ohhappydays



The mind is powerful...Not too sure that proves anything. Believing in God could make death more enjoyable, but quite possibly not as productive as what the newly dead thought.
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Folks, be kind to people who are screaming and cursing about how everything is okay.

In general, when people feel that everything is ok, this does not cause them to scream or curse.

Hence, what we need to understand is that this is a horrific event for all of us and some of us would rather not know, your reminders cause these individuals to panic, and see you as the source of the unpleasantness. There is a reason why the phrase "don't shoot the messenger" exists.

Messengers, you will get shot at. Don't shoot back, most of the time it's just someone overwhelmed by fear. Be kind, these are the people you are trying to help. (sure, there could be disinformers in there, but I don't think they would be writing in ALL CAPS about how EVERYTHING IS FINE...they would probably pretend they're smarter than you and crack a joke at your expense or something. Or, just rant nonsensically and try to mess up your message with insane garbage so it gets all confused.) Anyway what you have here is honest and panicked people. Forgive your fellow humans for being scared like the rest of us! Do not stop sharing the news, but do not engage someone in pain in debate.

We ALL hope that we are wrong about this and everything is fine... there's a slim chance that's true... hold onto it if you need to... you may be right...we all pray you are right... but even if you are not... (and only time will tell) you may need it to sleep. I need it to sleep! I need hope! (But I also need information. That's just me.) Some of us may need just hope and the info makes it worse. there's nothing wrong with that. We haven't done anything wrong. This is not our responsibility to take on, if we feel it's too much for us we don't need to(and it's huge, so there's no shame in that.) Our sleep should be peaceful. May peace be in the hearts of each of us. Be strong, everyone. Find peace in your own way.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1331542


Good points.
I really don't know what to think anymore about the radiation. There is no doubt people are completely IGNORING the possibilities in our skies right now, which is what I find disturbing.
Brainsdonthurtabit

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ahhhsiren2anaanaanaanaanaanaanaanaseal
 Quoting: Insert cool name here


That post did a lot of good. Penis.
Romney has a Swiss bank account and you have a double-wide. The American Dream! Vote for You Dummy!
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04/10/2011 11:30 PM
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Ahh the lack of wisdom at night is so obvious, it's when the vampiric soul suckers are out I guess. There will be hell to pay for the ignorance of humanity and soon it will be in your face. I'm going to bed now. Some people actually ahve a life to live. Too bad so many spend there's in the shit hole of their stupidity!s226
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STFU fear mongering self obsessed attention whoring idiot.



you should be ashamed of yourself. granny
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


REMEMBER NANKING!!!!! WHEN YOU KILL THE INNOCENT GOD DOESN'T FORGET AND HE WILL TAKE YOURS AS PAYMENT OF DEBT!!!

Nanking Massacre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Rape of Nanking" redirects here. For Iris Chang's book, see The Rape of Nanking (book).
"Nankin Jiken" redirects here. For the 1927 Nankin Jiken, see Nanjing Incident.Nanking Massacre

Massacre victims on the shore of Yangtze River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 南京大屠殺
Simplified Chinese 南京大屠杀
[show]
Transliterations

Japanese name
Kanji 南京大虐殺
[show]
Transliterations

Nanking Massacrev · d · e
Battle of Nanking (1937)
Nanking Safety Zone

International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone
Japanese war crimes
Contest to kill 100 people using a sword

International Military Tribunal for the Far East Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal
Historiography of the Nanking Massacre
Nanking Massacre denial

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall
Japanese history textbook controversies
Films
The Battle of China
Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre
City of Life and Death
Don't Cry, Nanking
John Rabe
Nanking
Tokyo Trial
The Truth about Nanjing
Books
American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking
The Good Man of Nanking
The Rape of Nanking
Tokyo


The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, up to hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped[1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.[2][3][4]

The massacre remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists,[3] who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.

An accurate estimation of the death toll in the massacre is never achieved because most of the Japanese military records on the killings were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945. The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates more than 200,000 casualties in the incident;[5] China's official estimate is about 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Estimates from Japanese historians vary widely, in the vicinity of 40,000–200,000. Some Japanese scholars even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. These negationists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda.[6][7]

Although the Japanese government has admitted the acts of the killing of a large number of noncombatants, looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking,[8][9] some Japanese officials have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre (and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings) has become a staple of Japanese nationalism.[10] In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright.[10] Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations.[11]Contents [hide]
1 Military situation
1.1 Relocation of the Chinese capital
1.2 Strategy for the defense of Nanking
2 Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army
2.1 Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking
2.2 Flight of Chinese civilians
2.3 Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone
2.4 Prince Asaka appointed as commander
3 Battle of Nanking
3.1 Siege of the city
3.2 Demand for surrender
3.3 Assault and capture of Nanking
3.4 Pursuit and mopping-up operations
4 Massacre
4.1 Rape
4.2 Murder of civilians
4.3 Execution of Chinese POWs
4.4 Theft and arson
4.5 Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners
4.6 Causes
5 Matsui's reaction to the massacre
6 End of the massacre
7 Recall of Matsui and Asaka
8 Death toll estimates
8.1 Range and duration
8.2 Various estimates
9 War crimes tribunals
9.1 Grant of immunity to Prince Asaka
9.2 Evidence and testimony
9.3 Matsui's defense
9.4 Verdict
9.5 Sentence
10 Memorials
11 Controversy
11.1 Cold War
11.2 Debate in Japan
11.3 Apology and condolences by the prime minister and emperor of Japan
11.4 Denial of the massacre by the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan
12 Legacy
12.1 Effect on international relations
12.2 As a component of national identity
12.3 Japan
12.4 China
13 In the media
13.1 Music
13.2 Novels
13.3 Non-fiction
13.4 Films
13.5 TV series
13.6 Records
14 See also
15 Notes
16 References
17 Further reading
18 External links

[edit]
Military situation

In August 1937, the Japanese army invaded Shanghai and there they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.
[edit]
Relocation of the Chinese capital

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang Kai-shek's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China's vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.[12]

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.
[edit]
Strategy for the defense of Nanking

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe.

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders, many of whom were killed during the defense of the city and subsequent Japanese occupation that followed.
[edit]
Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army
[edit]
Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking

One of articles on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings".[13]

Sword used in the "contest" on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei, Taiwan

Although the Nanking Massacre is generally described as having occurred over a six-week period after the fall of Nanking, the crimes committed by the Japanese army were not limited to that period. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanking.

According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, "The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanking quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish."[14]

Novelist Ishikawa Tatsuzo vividly described how the 16th Division of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force committed atrocities on the march between Shanghai and Nanking in his novel Ikiteiru Heitai [Living Soldiers], which was based on interviews that Tatsuzo conducted with troops in Nanking during January 1938.[15]

Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers as reported in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and the English language Japan Advertiser. The contest was covered much like a sporting event with regular updates on the score over a series of days.[16][17] In Japan, the veracity of the newspaper article about the contest was the subject of ferocious debate for several decades starting in 1967.[18]

In 2000, historian Bob Wakabayashi concurred with certain Japanese scholars who had argued that the contest was a concocted story, with the collusion of the soldiers themselves for the purpose of raising the national fighting spirit.[19] In 2005, a Tokyo district judge dismissed a suit by the families of the lieutenants, stating that "the lieutenants admitted the fact that they raced to kill 100 people" and that the story cannot be proven to be clearly false.[20] The judge also ruled against the civil claim of the plaintiffs because the original article was more than 60 years old.[21] The historicity of the event remains disputed in Japan.[22]
[edit]
Flight of Chinese civilians

As the Japanese army drew closer to Nanjing, Chinese civilians fled the city in droves. The people of Nanking fled in panic not only because of the dangers of the anticipated battle but also because they feared the deprivation inherent in the scorched earth strategy that the Chinese troops were implementing in the area surrounding the city.[citation needed]

On July 31, the Kuomintang (KMT) had issued a statement that they were determined to turn every Chinese national and every piece of their soil into ash, rather than turn them over to the opponent. The Nanking garrison force set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates.[citation needed] Targets within and outside of the city walls—such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages—were burnt to cinders, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million (1937) US dollars.[23][24][25]
[edit]
Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone
Main article: Nanking Safety Zone

Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army approached Nanking, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners. Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December 16. 15 of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone.[26] German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, in part because of his status as a member of the Nazi party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact.

The Committee established the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city. The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces, and the members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area.

On December 1, 1937, Nanking Mayor Ma Chao-chun ordered all Chinese citizens remaining in Nanking to move into the “Safety Zone”. Many fled the city on December 7, and the International Committee took over as the de facto government of Nanking.
[edit]
Prince Asaka appointed as commander

Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1940

Head of a Chinese man beheaded by Japanese, is wedged in a barricade near Nanking just before the fall of the city.[27]

In a memorandum for the palace rolls, Hirohito had singled Prince Asaka Yasuhiko out for censure as the one imperial kinsman whose attitude was "not good." He assigned Asaka to Nanking as an opportunity to make amends.[28]

On December 5, Asaka left Tokyo by plane and arrived at the front three days later. Asaka met with division commanders, lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa, who informed him that the Japanese troops had almost completely surrounded three hundred thousand Chinese troops in the vicinity of Nanking and that preliminary negotiations suggested that the Chinese were ready to surrender.[29]

Prince Asaka allegedly issued an order to "kill all captives," thus providing official sanction for the crimes which took place during and after the battle.[30] Some authors record that Prince Asaka signed the order for Japanese soldiers in Nanking to "kill all captives"[31] Others claim that lieutenant colonel Isamu Chō, Asaka's aide-de-camp, sent this order under the Prince's sign manual without the Prince's knowledge or assent.[32] However, even if Chō took the initiative on his own, Prince Asaka, who was nominally the officer in charge, gave no orders to stop the carnage. When General Matsui arrived in the city four days after the massacre had begun, he issued strict orders that resulted in the eventual end of the massacre.

While the extent of Prince Asaka's responsibility for the massacre remains a matter of debate, the ultimate sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China were issued in the Emperor Hirohito's ratification of the Japanese army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners on August 5, 1937.[33]
[edit]
Battle of Nanking
Main article: Battle of Nanking
[edit]
Siege of the city

On December 7, the Japanese army issued a command to all troops, advising that because occupying a foreign capital was an unprecedented event for the Japanese military, those soldiers who "[commit] any illegal acts", "dishonor the Japanese Army", "loot", or "cause a fire to break out, even because of their carelessness" would be severely punished.[34]

The Japanese military continued to move forward, breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance, and arriving outside the walled city of Nanking on December 9.
[edit]
Demand for surrender

At noon on December 9, the military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the surrender of Nanking within 24 hours, promising annihilation if refused.[35][36]

Meanwhile, members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone contacted Tang and suggested a plan for three-day cease-fire, during which the Chinese troops could withdraw without fighting while the Japanese troops would stay in their present position.

General Tang agreed with this proposal if the International Committee could acquire permission of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who had already fled to Hankow to which he had temporarily shifted the military headquarters two days earlier.

German businessman and chairman of the International Committee, John Rabe, boarded the U.S. gunboat Panay on Dec. 9 and sent two telegrams, one to Chiang Kai-shek by way of the American ambassador in Hankow, and one to the Japanese military authority in Shanghai. The next day he was informed that Chiang Kai-shek, who had ordered that Nanking be defended "to the last man," had refused to accept the proposal.[citation needed]
[edit]
Assault and capture of Nanking

Iwane Matsui enters Nanking

The Japanese awaited an answer to their demand for surrender but no response was received from the Chinese by the noon deadline on December 10. General Matsui Iwane waited another hour before issuing the command to take Nanking by force. The Japanese army mounted its assault on the Nanking walls from multiple directions; the SEF’s 16th Division attacked three gates on the eastern side, the 6th Division of the 10A launched its offensive on the western walls, and the SEF’s 9th Division advanced into the area in-between.[12]

On December 12, after two days of Japanese attack, under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment, General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat. What followed was nothing short of chaos. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in, and many others were shot by the Chinese supervisory unit as they tried to flee.[23]

On the 13th of December, the 6th and the 116th Divisions of the Japanese Army were the first to enter the city, facing little military resistance. Simultaneously, the 9th Division entered nearby Guanghua Gate, and the 16th Division entered the Zhongshan and Taiping gates. That same afternoon, two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River. Nanking fell to the Japanese by nightfall.[citation needed]
[edit]
Pursuit and mopping-up operations

Soldiers from the Imperial Japanese Army enter Nanking in January 1938

Japanese troops pursued the retreating Chinese army units, primarily in the Xiakuan area to the north of the city walls and around the Zijin Mountain in the east. Although the popular narrative suggests that the final phase of the battle consisted of a one-sided slaughter of Chinese troops by the Japanese, some Japanese historians maintain that the remaining Chinese military still posed a serious threat to the Japanese. Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, SEF commander, told a war correspondent later that he was in a very perilous position when his headquarters was ambushed by Chinese forces that were in the midst of retreating from Nanking east of the city. On the other side of the city, the 11th Company of the 45th Regiment encountered some 20,000 Chinese soldiers who were making their way from Xiakuan.[12]

The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanking Safety Zone. Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated, the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone. The safety zone, an area of 3.85 square kilometers, was literally packed with the remaining population of Nanking. The Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate alleged plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians.[12]
[edit]
Massacre

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre.[citation needed]

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy.[citation needed]
[edit]
Rape

Photo taken in Xuzhou, showing the body of a woman profaned in a similar way to the teenager described in case 5 of John Magee's movie.

Case 5 of John Magee's film: on December 13, 1937, about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but 2 Chinese of 11 in the house at No. 5 Xinlukou. A woman and her two teenager daughters were raped, and Japanese rammed a bottle and a cane in the vagina. An eight-year old girl was stabbed but she and her younger sister survived. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by an elderly woman shown in the photo. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the photo.[37][38]

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly.[39] A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped.[40] The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation[41] or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo,[42] or other objects into the vagina. Young children were not exempt from these atrocities, and were cut open to allow Japanese soldiers to rape them.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary:

I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet ... People are hysterical ... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.[43]

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson, a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms".[44]

Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family:

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live.[45]

In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe, wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. For the 17th December:

Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital ... Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.[46]

There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest.[47] Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women.
[edit]
Murder of civilians

A boy was killed by Japanese with a butt of a rifle, because he did not take off his hat.

On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary:

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (...) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.[48]

On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese .... One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.[49]

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.[50]

Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings, testified:

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely ... The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.[51]

According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani, 'The Army used a trumpet sound that meant "Kill all Chinese who run away"'.[52] Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the "Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch", a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide. Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.[53]
[edit]
Execution of Chinese POWs

On August 6, 1937, Hirohito had personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoner of war".[54]

A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre.

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed.[citation needed]

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.[55]

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele, American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times, made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times, he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children.[56]

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the U.S. State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was "forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier" and "roasted his heart and liver and ate them".[57]
[edit]
Theft and arson

One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. According to reports, Japanese troops torched newly-built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike. The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanking meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit. This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary.[58]

On 17 December, John Rabe wrote as chairman a complaint to Kiyoshi Fukui, second secretary of the Japanese Embassy. The following is an excerpt:

In other words, on the 13th when your troops entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat ... All 27 Occidentals in the city at that time and our Chinese population were totally surprised by the reign of robbery, raping and killing initiated by your soldiers on the 14th. All we are asking in our protest is that you restore order among your troops and get the normal life city going as soon as possible. In the latter process we are glad to cooperate in any way we can. But even last night between 8 and 9 p.m. when five Occidentals members of our staff and Committee toured the Zone to observe conditions, we did not find any single Japanese patrol either in the Zone or at the entrances![59]
[edit]
Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners

The Japanese troops did respect the Zone to an extent; no shells entered that part of the city leading up to the Japanese occupation except a few stray shots. During the chaos following the attack of the city, some were killed in the Safety Zone, but the crimes that took place in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts.

The Japanese soldiers committed actions in the Safety Zone that were part of the larger Nanking Massacre. The International Committee appealed a number of times to the Japanese army, with John Rabe using his credentials as a NSDAP member, but to no avail. Rabe wrote that from time to time the Japanese would enter the Safety Zone at will, carry off a few hundred men and women, and either summarily execute them or rape and then kill them.[60]

By February 5, 1938, the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder, rape, and general disorder by Japanese soldiers that had been reported after the American, British and German diplomats had returned to their embassies.[61]
"Case 5- On the night of December 14th, there were many cases of Japanese soldiers entering houses and raping women or taking them away. This created panic in the area and hundreds of women moved into the Gingling College campus yesterday."[61]
"Case 10- On the night of December 15th, a number of Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot, some by six men."[61]
"Case 13 – December 18, 4 p.m., at No. 18 I Ho Lu, Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated, one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live."[61]
"Case 14 – On December 16th, seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College. Five returned. Each girl was raped six or seven times daily- reported December 18th."[61]
"Case 15 – There are about 540 refugees crowded in #83 and 85 on Canton Road... More than 30 women and girls have been raped. The women and children are crying all nights. Conditions inside the compound are worse than we can describe. Please give us help."[61]
"Case 16- A Chinese girl named Loh, who, with her mother and brother, was living in one of the Refugee Centers in the Refugee Zone, was shot through the head and killed by a Japanese soldier. The girl was 14 years old. The incident occurred near the Kuling Ssu, a noted temple on the border of the Refugee zone (...)"[61]
"Case 19 – January 30th, about 5 p.m. Mr. Sone (of the Nanking Theological Seminary) was greeted by several hundred women pleading with him that they would not have to go home on February 4th. They said it was no use going home they might just as well be killed for staying at the camp as to be raped, robbed or killed at home. (...) One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. She said she was too old. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. But she survived to come back."[61]

It is said that Rabe rescued between 200,000 – 250,000 Chinese people.[62] [63]
[edit]
Causes

"There is no obvious explanation for this grim event, nor can one be found. The Japanese soldiers, who had expected easy victory, instead had been fighting hard for months and had taken infinitely higher casualties than anticipated. They were bored, angry, frustrated, tired. The Chinese women were undefended, their menfolk powerless or absent. The war, still undeclared, had no clear-cut goal or purpose. Perhaps all Chinese, regardless of sex or age, seemed marked out as victims.".[64]
 Quoting: APOLLO 1324393



On a smaller level...Thats what the Yanks did in Vietnam and Cambodia.
 Quoting: Brainsdonthurtabit


Abd what about the 200 year Holy Crusades between the Christians and the Muslims? All because of a belief.
Anonymous Coward
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
@Rager..

You say you live in the now.. and my spiritual self agrees with living in the now absolutely, but tomorrow I have to eat.. tomorrow I have to have water, food, shelter to ensure that tomorrow at 11am I can be LIVING in the now..

Do you not balance your accounts? Pay your bills? Buy groceries for next week?..

Living in the now is a completely misunderstood concept. It is supposed to reflect that in this moment you appreciate what you have and you give thanks for it and you enjoy it. It does not mean ignoring your needs for tomorrow.

I do not suggest that anyone should embrace fear.. fear is no good to you.. but action, knowledge, determination to ensure the continuation of our species surely is an important trait to have as a human being ??
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer


Ben Dover/Rager is a known shill. Better to talk to the wall. He will try to convince you your neighbor is a domestic terrorist and thw best thing you can do for your country is to sit in your tub and die in place.
Aquarius 7

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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Of course they have. They just don't want We The People to know.
.

Cayce: “… The greater portion of Japan must go into the sea. …. then we may know it has begun …”. www.near-death.com/experiences/cayce11.html
.
"Be kind, for everyone you know is fighting a hard battle" - Plato
.
"Those who are at peace in their hearts already are in the Great Shelter of life." ~ Hopi Prophecy
.
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:33 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
@ Anonymous Coward User ID: 1314053, thanks for the kind words..

Also

Found this thread about knowing where your milk comes from.. I guess this should be true of all the food you are consuming at the moment

Thread: Discover where your milk and dairy products come from
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer


Enchanted Wanderer (like your name, BTW):

You are most deserving and most welcome. I've been trying myself since 911 to get people motivated in this manner. For the most part, they don't want to listen, don't want to believe.

The majority are complacent because they have been conditioned to be that way. One cannot really blame them. There is a lot of propaganda, a lot of disinformation, a lot of distractions. Schools do not teach critical thinking, how to think for oneself. Sports, consumerism/materialism, and vanity are heavily encouraged and promoted - especially here in the LA area. Most do and believe what the TV tells them.

People are starting to wake up, albeit slowly. I believe the hope lies with the younger generation, those who are in their teens, maybe early twenties. They see, they understand more of what's going on than the generations before them thanks to the internet. While what is occurring affects everyone, I feel for those younger. They're screwed and they know it. They know odds are against them because prior generations have left everything in shambles for them. This, alone, is quite telling as to how mind-numb the older generations are in this country. Knowing the burdens and the hardships their inaction is creating for their children and grandchildren, yet still not making the effort to try to make things right. I don't understand it.

It is a heavy burden to bear - to be aware of it all, to know what's coming, trying with all that you've got to do something about it, yet others don't see. The US population exists in two distinctly different realities - those who have made an effort to become informed and those who prefer to live in denial and believe the reality spoonfed to them by FOX News and the like.

You don't even live in this country, and yet, you show more concern for its people than most of those who do live here. Thank you.

I've seen some people here on GLP who live in other areas of the US expressing sentiments of pleasure that all of us west coast f#*@s might perish due to the radiation, or an earthquake, or whatever (thanks, really appreciate that). I don't think they realize their separatism and lack of empathy is exactly want the TPTB wants and encourages. They are playing right into their hand.

I've also seen here on GLP exemplary actions by a couple of US citizens who gave invitations to citizens of Japan to come stay at their house - one even trying to encourage everyone else to do the same, for each US household to take in one Japanese family, because helping another human being in dire need is what it is all about.

These people had it so very right - this what humanity needs right now, more than ever. Unity rather than separatism. We are all in this together. I've read your other posts on this thread - you speak words of wisdom. It is in other people's best interest that they should listen, rather than attack you.

Not that I think you will, but don't ever give up...May all good things come your way.

BTW - Thank you for the link. I haven't touched cows milk in years, but it did show where our soy milk comes from. It was nice to see the soybeans were not grown on the west coast.

(In case people are not aware, cows milk is designed for baby cows to enable them to grow from 100 to 1000+ lbs in a year and is not meant for human consumption. Human milk is designed for baby humans. There is no nutritional necessity for adults of any species, including humans, to drink milk. In fact, it does more harm for one's health than good.)
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:35 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
...


bump
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


bump
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1327216


bump
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


BUMP
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1336668


bump
Enchanted Wanderer  (OP)

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04/10/2011 11:35 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
1. [link to www.counterpunch.org]

All the television stations are saying that while radiation is rising, it is still not high enough to be a danger to health. They compare it to a stomach x-ray, or if it goes up, to a CT scan. What is the truth of the matter?

Around Fukushima Daiichi Station they measured 400 millisieverts – that’s per hour. With this measurement (Chief Cabinet Secretary) Edano admitted for the first time that there was a danger to health, but he didn’t explain what this means.

All of the information media are at fault here I think. They are saying stupid things like, why, we are exposed to radiation all the time in our daily life, we get radiation from outer space.

But that’s one millisievert per year.

A year has 365 days, a day has 24 hours; multiply 365 by 24, you get 8760. Multiply the 400 millisieverts by that, you get 3,500,000 the normal dose. You call that safe?

And what media have reported this? None.

They compare it to a CT scan, which is over in an instant; that has nothing to do with it. The reason radioactivity can be measured is that radioactive material is escaping. {YOU DONT INGEST XRAY RADIATION}

What is dangerous is when that material enters your body and irradiates it from inside. These industry-mouthpiece scholars come on TV and what to they say? They say as you move away the radiation is reduced in inverse ratio to the square of the distance.

Internal irradiation happens when radioactive material is ingested into the body. What happens? Say there is a nuclear particle one meter away from you. You breathe it in, it sticks inside your body; the distance between you and it is now at the micron level. One meter is 1000 millimeters, one micron is one thousandth of a millimeter. That’s a thousand times a thousand squared. That’s the real meaning of “inverse ratio of the square of the distance.”

Radiation exposure is increased by a factor of a trillion.

Inhaling even the tiniest particle, that’s the danger.

So making comparisons with X-rays and CT scans has no meaning. Because you can breathe in the radioactive material.

When it enters your body, there’s no telling where it will go. The biggest danger is for women, especially pregnant women, and little children.

Now they’re only talking about iodine and cesium, but that’s only part of it, they’re not using the proper detection instruments. What they call monitoring means only measuring the amount of radiation in the air. Their instruments don’t eat. What they measure has no connection with the amount of radioactive material {in the air} . .

damage from radioactive rays and damage from radioactive material are not the same.

Tepco is not in shape even to do regular monitoring. They just take an occasional measurement, and that becomes the basis of Edano’s statements.

You have to take constant measurements, but they are not able to do that. And you need to investigate just what is escaping, and how much. That requires very sophisticated measuring instruments.

You can’t do it just by keeping a monitoring post. It’s no good just to measure the level of radiation in the air.

Whiz in by car, take a measurement, it’s high, it’s low – that’s not the point.

We need to know what kind of radioactive materials are escaping, and where they are going – they don’t have a system in place for doing that now.

GLP'ER ALREADY POSTED THIS INFO Thread: Hirose Takashi: "What They're Covering Up at Fukushima"

2. [link to www.epa.gov]

People may also be exposed from contaminated sites:

Walking on cesium-137 contaminated soil could result in external exposure to gamma radiation. Leaving the contaminated area would prevent additional exposure.

Coming in contact with waste materials at contaminated sites could also result in external exposure to gamma radiation. Leaving the area would also end the exposure.

If cesium-137 contaminated soil becomes air-borne as dust, breathing the dust would result in internal exposure.
Because the radiation emitting material is then in the body, leaving the site would not end the exposure.

Drinking cesium-137 contaminated water, would also place the cesium-137 inside the body, where it would expose living tissue to gamma and beta radiation.

Type of Exposure Radiation Source Dose Received

Occupational Industrial, Medical and Academic 0-5000 mrem/year, (Average-500 mrem/year)

Cigarettes - 1.5 packs/day Lead-210 and Polonium-210 1300 mrem/year

Nuclear Medicine Bone Scan Radioactive Technetium 430 mrem
Living in a Brick House Uranium and Thorium 75 mrem/year

Watching TV Low Energy X-rays 30 mrem/year

Routine Chest X-ray X-rays 10 mrem/film

Cooking/Heating with Natural Gas Radon 9 mrem/year

Airplane Flight - Cross-Country Cosmic Radiation 4 mrem/trip

Smoke Detectors Americium-241 <1 mrem/year

Nuclear Weapons Fallout Cesium-137; Strontium-90 <0.3 mrem/year

Nuclear Fuel Cycle/Power Plants Nuclear Fuel 0.1 mrem/year

3. [link to www.smh.com.au]

AIRBORNE HAZARD

Plutonium 238, 239 and 240 are highly radioactive but their radiation is in alpha particles, which only travels very short distances and cannot penetrate human skin. Where they are highly dangerous is if they are inhaled. Their radiation causes DNA damage in tissue, which then boosts the risk of cancer. The bone marrow and liver, where plutonium is transported through a blood protein called transferring, are especially vulnerable. Just a dozen milligrams of plutonium are lethal for a human, according to tests on lab animals cited by France's Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN).

INGESTION PERIL

Other dangers, but for which there is less data, come from exposure to plutonium through ingestion or through an open wound. Plutonium is only eliminated from the body very slowly, though excretion. It takes around 50 years for plutonium to be biologically removed from the skeleton and about 20 years for it be eliminated from the liver, says the IRSN.

[link to www.irsn.fr]

If you feel like reading this "long term environmental behaviour of radionuclides: [link to www.irsn.fr]

4.

[link to en.wikipedia.org]

Criticality potential at fukushima

Toxicity issues aside, care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium-235.[8] A critical mass of plutonium emits lethal amounts of neutrons and gamma rays.[98] Plutonium in solution is more likely to form a critical mass than the solid form due to moderation by the hydrogen in water.[14]

Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences. Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6.2 kg plutonium sphere resulted in a fatal dose of radiation at Los Alamos on August 21, 1945, when scientist Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. received a dose estimated to be 5.1 Sievert (510 rems) and died 28 days later.[99] Nine months later, another Los Alamos scientist, Louis Slotin, died from a similar accident involving a beryllium reflector and the same plutonium core (the so-called "demon core") that had previously claimed the life of Daghlian.[100] These incidents were fictionalized in the 1989 film Fat Man and Little Boy.

In December 1958, during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.[101] Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan,The United States and many other countries.[101]

Cesium

[link to en.wikipedia.org]

The isotopes 134 and 137 (present in the biosphere in small amounts from radiation leaks) represent a radioactivity burden which varies depending on location. Radiocaesium does not accumulate in the body as effectively as many other fission products (such as radioiodine and radiostrontium). As with other alkali metals, radiocaesium washes out of the body relatively quickly in sweat and urine. However, radiocaesium follows potassium and tends to accumulate in plant tissues, including fruits and vegetables.[97][98][99] Accumulation of caesium-137 in lakes has been a high concern after the Chernobyl disaster. Experiments with dogs showed that a single dose of 3800 &#956;Ci (4.1 &#956;g of caesium-137) per kilogram is lethal within three weeks;

Radioactive Contamination

[link to en.wikipedia.org]

Radioactive contamination can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection. For this reason, it is important to use personal protective equipment when working with radioactive materials. Radioactive contamination may also be ingested as the result of eating contaminated plants and animals or drinking contaminated water or milk from exposed animals. Following a major contamination incident, all potential pathways of internal exposure should be considered.
Time for a new reality [link to www.thevenusproject.com]
Get A Kit, Make A Plan, Be Prepared. Zombie Apocalypses Do Happen!
"whoever forgets his history is condemned to repeat it"
“The Sun of Light shines in the Heart as Love.”
The Truth of Life descends from the world of Eternal Light {the sun} to illuminate the minds, regenerate the hearts, raise and renew the souls of all the sons of Truth destined to constitute the nucleus of the new humanity - Peter Deunov
"Knowledge is the Great Endowment of the Creator that lives within you and allows you to experience & express humanity’s One Spirituality, beyond all divisions of race, culture, nation & religion. Knowledge alone has the power both to guide and protect the individual and to unite and enable humanity to chart a new way forward"
whiterussian

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04/10/2011 11:35 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Enchanted Wanderer

Good thread a valid point. Just look at Canada shutting down mobile rad readings..
Sorry the thread got hijacked by arseholes from down under.
Probably a yank at one of the CIA listening stations up in the north of Oz..
or just a cnut.

Last Edited by whiterussian on 04/10/2011 11:37 PM
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:36 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
...


So your saying you would rather not know your being poisoned?

You would rather they lie to you and tell you everything is hunky dory?

My brother died of cancer so I know first hand what a horrible and prolonged painful death it is, as do many people who have watched a loved one die from this horrible disease..

And your quite happy to just stay in the dark about it?

Thats your choice.. but im sure there are many who dont want to be left in the dark..

Im sure there are many mothers and fathers who do not want to willingly have their children breath or injest something they know will kill them

Im sure these mothers and fathers dont want to sit at their dying childs bedside for months on end through kemo visits, loss of hair, appetite and watch them waste away to nothing and in horrible pain..

Thats what my parents went through... thats what I went through

So ok fine.. ignore it.. thats your choice.. but do not prevent OTHER people who want to know from accessing information.

And if you have better links dear then by all means post them.
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer
First I find it irritating that people always have to equate America with the shit show American Idol. Second let's say we do what you say about going on strike. WTF?? I survived pancreatic cancer. Guess what? Everyone dies some die. Your stupid strike WILL NOT stop the radiation. If everyone panics you will have more non-radiation deaths than from the radiation.

This board is full of pussies like you. EVERYONE dies! Why are you so scared of the inevitable? Enjoy live. You're only here once!!
 Quoting: lptl081


You know something, I've worked directly with the dying. The ones that were filled with bravado & had not done any mental or spiritual preperation were the ones that took the longest to let go......they kept hanging by a thread, terrified because they did not know anything about dying or where they were going. The quiet & peaceful ones were the ones who had a quick & peaceful passing & who had done preparation beforehand. They had made peace with everyone & were ready to go beyond this life. The first group lived in denial about their illness & frequently thumping their chests about how they were going home soon. Yea, they went home alright, not to where they thought.
 Quoting: ohhappydays



The mind is powerful...Not too sure that proves anything. Believing in God could make death more enjoyable, but quite possibly not as productive as what the newly dead thought.
 Quoting: Brainsdonthurtabit


We will never know until we cross that bridge ourselves. I also don't know whether a belief in God helps them or not. Buddhists for example do not believe in a Christian kind of God, but spend a great deal of time studying death and dying long before they are old and sick. So it is an easier transition for them......they already have a certain understanding of the process.
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:36 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Of course they had access. Everyone new this. And people can say this op is fear mongering but he is right. The point is there is no transparency in any aspect of our government whatsoever. We say it all the time "these politicians are all liars" and change the topic or channel. When are we going to say enough is enough. Obama is the one President I actually believed wanted to make a difference and it is the same old shit. Everything he said he would do he, he has done the opposite. Looked all of us in the eyes and lied and now it is bringing death to the entire world. Wake up America, the rogue nation is us. A national strike for FUCKIN CHANGE is a good idea!! And it is a start. Sorry for the rambling but there is too much at stake and if no one else sees it we are DOOMED!
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:37 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Enchanted Wanderer

Good thread a valid point. Just look at Canada shutting down mobile rad readings.. Sorry the thread got hijacked by arseholes from down under. Probably a yank at one of the CIA listening stations up in the north of Oz.. or just a cnut.
 Quoting: whiterussian


the OP is a bullshitter.

you should be thanking me instead you moran


flip
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:39 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Enchanted Wanderer

Good thread a valid point. Just look at Canada shutting down mobile rad readings..
Sorry the thread got hijacked by arseholes from down under.
Probably a yank at one of the CIA listening stations up in the north of Oz..
or just a cnut.
 Quoting: whiterussian


it's CUNT not cnut.

learn to spell you slanty eyed nip
rphunter

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04/10/2011 11:43 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
If you are all done . I reiterate..Place your faith in Jesus..


Try to remember that most of these acts are carried out , if they are man made by small groups , evil men and women , who can only be stopped by killing/imprisoning them , yet they rage on , why?

Look to the Bible , in Revelation , all are crying , Why? because only the Lamb , Jesus can open that last seal , only he can deliver ..
Yes Evil is protected by Satan , and thus we are protected by Jesus , yet all the protests , and even action of a more material nature wont deliver us until that time , hens our creator , who has let us try , but fail , open that last seal , and then he will act .. and it will go quick

.. until then , pray and be prepared , he cares about our suffering , our fearpeacecool2peacepeacecool2cool2

.. speak out , or even protest .. its OK even better if you can add what i have shared with you.. that we all cry , [ don't believe I haven't too ] with rage and sorrow over what we cannot make happen

.. look to the one who can! ..its not long off .. really
 Quoting: its rphunter 1283936

Enchanted Wanderer  (OP)

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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Right for all the haters and disbelievers I am currently researching the plutonium radiation vs an xray theory... <facepalms> it should be obvious but since you want it..Im on it.. will post back in a few minutes with the info
 Quoting: Enchanted Wanderer


BE SURE TO RESEARCH THE AMOUNT OF RADIATION SPECIFICALLY COMING FROM THIS CLOUD.

FROM THE NUMBERS FROM GEIGER COUNTERS OWNED AND OPERATED BY RANDOM PEOPLE IN CALIFORNIA, IT SEEMS LIKE THE AMOUNT IS DISAPPOINTINGLY HARMLESS. ANYONE CAN OWN A GEIGER COUNTER AND LOTS OF PEOPLE DO, AND IF RADIATION WAS MAKING ITS WAY OVER IN ANY SORT OF DANGEROUS AMOUNTS, PEOPLE WOULD HAVE RAISED THE ALARM BY NOW.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 1270337


Here, I already posted this information as well..

Thread: THE TRUTH ABOUT GEIGER COUNTERS.. THEY DONT MEASURE PLUTONIUM & URANIUM RADIATION!!!!!!!

Alpha emitters, Geiger Counters
- a clarification on monitoring for radioactive pollution

The principal alpha-emitting nuclides of interest are Plutonium and Uranium. To all intents and purposes only specialised and expensive scintillation counters like the DP2 Elektra can detect them in the environment.

Even then the detector window must be within 2cm of the radioactive particle. You won't do this many times because the window on the DP2 is so thin that a blade of grass will make a hole in it, and then it has to be repaired. Cheaper (but still costly) instruments such as the Gamma Scout which claim to detect alphas might possibly have some marginal response if a particle was on the detector window, but you will still have no way to tell what it was responding to.

Gamma signals will swamp any alphas anyway. The Electromagnetic Energy of alpha decay can be detected if a detector has the right proximity to the radioactive source material. This is true for beta, gamma and neutron radiation. They have to reach the detector. In air, some EM radiation travels inches, some travels feet and some travels miles (alpha, beta, gamma, neutron respectively). Some will pass through concrete and lead; some cannot pass through skin.

Alpha radiation attenuates in air within a couple of inches. These small all purpose GM counters you are asking about are used to measure Becquerels and use a formula to calculate Greys and Sieverts.

Any detected alpha radiation in an air-born sweep or a swipe of a human body is the result of coming within a couple of centimetres of the source material. In the case of alpha EM radiation, the radioactive source material will be floating or passing, stuck to clothing, skin or hair in the form of particulate (sub-micron sized radioactive dust particles). Uranium and plutonium particulate has an affinity for clothing due to filter effects of the surface material, static charging and humidity of the body. The most radioactive secondary sources in Iraq were the clothing of troops in the battle field.

If the air-born particulate or fall-out is an alpha emitter it will be detected by the hand held detector provided it is close enough (an inch or so) and the rate of decay is frequent enough to emit an alpha decay within the immediate area of the detector's reading face (window) or the detector pauses long enough at that point if the source is stationary. Frequently the operator will scan too fast to catch the decays when the frequency is low or the distance is greater than a centimetre. Proximity/distance, frequency and density make the hand held detection a 3 dimensional task. The type of detector and the type of emission must be compatible as well.

No GM (Geiger Muller) counter can identify the type of radiation it is detecting. An alpha probe designed to ignore all other types of radiation is needed for alpha-only detection. That is what I used in Iraq and Afghanistan, where alpha decay is accompanied by gamma emissions.

No GM counter can identify the nuclide source. A nuclide identifier is required (about $15,000 for a basic field portable identifier). I used an Exploranium in Iraq. We used gamma and beta detectors to find the hot spots and original sources and then narrowed in with alpha probes.

The GM counters can only read EM pulses, not the "type" of radiation (i.e. it cannot specify that it is alpha). They are set to give an accumulated reading of decays and or translate (unreliably) into biological effectiveness.

The emissions of radioactivity from the Japanese supercritical reactor cores and the spent fuel cooling ponds that are causing a threat to the liquidators on site are two kinds: gamma and neutron radiation. Both are extremely "penetrating" and extremely damaging as they pass through the human body like a microscopic bullet, slicing and cutting cellular material, and super-heating sub-cellular molecular targets (just as if they are a miniature grenade exploding inside a cell).

The second type of radiation is the emissions from any air-born particles carried out the plant, lofting into the atmosphere and travelling across Japan -- these have now reached Canada and the US. These particles are entrained by the mechanical disturbances of the fire-fighters' water being poured on the reactors, the hydrogen explosions, etc. These air-born reactor fission products (man made products inside the nuclear reactor) such as radioactive Iodine and Cesium are mostly beta radiation emitters. They do not exist in nature and they are accompanied by a host of alpha radiation emitters from the original fuel: Depleted Uranium and Enriched Uranium and artificial nuclide, Plutonium. Beta, gamma and alpha radiation will be emitted by the contents of these air-born materials spread in the vapors, steams and smoke plumes leaving the plants and travelling around the globe.

A single particle of these air-born radiation emitters entering the lungs can enter the blood stream, incorporate in human tissue and start a biological chain reaction that can cause cancer and other systemic illnesses. To claim they are not a threat to human health is a fallacious statement. It is statement of statistics regarding the likelihood of exposure and consequent illness, and nothing to do with the biological effects of contamination. These radiations emitting materials (dusts and particles) are extremely dangerous when internalized. They should not be breathed into the body, ingested in food or water or allowed to be absorbed through the skin.

There is a cause for concern. As we have already said, it is more than likely (in fact quite certain) that Plutonium and Uranium are part of the fallout mix. If the gamma signal goes above background you have to assume there are particles floating about that you definitely do not want inside your body. The problem with alpha-emitting particles is that although the range of their radioactive decays is very short, they are immensely destructive, killing cells and potentially mutating the DNA of cells which survive. The standard ICRP model of radiation risk takes an average of the energy of those decays as if it were distributed across large volumes of tissue and concludes that the risk is low. This is as stupid as believing that because it's safe to warm yourself by the fire it's equally safe to absorb the same amount of heat by eating a red-hot ball bearing.

At the date of writing we still know of no information from Japan on alpha emitters from the disaster. This is a serious dereliction of duty to the public.
Time for a new reality [link to www.thevenusproject.com]
Get A Kit, Make A Plan, Be Prepared. Zombie Apocalypses Do Happen!
"whoever forgets his history is condemned to repeat it"
“The Sun of Light shines in the Heart as Love.”
The Truth of Life descends from the world of Eternal Light {the sun} to illuminate the minds, regenerate the hearts, raise and renew the souls of all the sons of Truth destined to constitute the nucleus of the new humanity - Peter Deunov
"Knowledge is the Great Endowment of the Creator that lives within you and allows you to experience & express humanity’s One Spirituality, beyond all divisions of race, culture, nation & religion. Knowledge alone has the power both to guide and protect the individual and to unite and enable humanity to chart a new way forward"
Enchanted Wanderer  (OP)

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04/10/2011 11:44 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Interesting also.. Doesage means nothing:

[link to www.llrc.org]

There are important concerns with respect to the heterogeneity of dose delivery within tissues and cells from short-range charged particle emissions, the extent to which current models adequately represent such interactions with biological targets, and the specification of target cells at risk. Indeed, the actual concepts of absorbed dose become questionable, and sometimes meaningless, when considering interactions at the cellular and molecular levels.
(CERRIE Majority Report Chapter 2.1 paragraph 11).
Time for a new reality [link to www.thevenusproject.com]
Get A Kit, Make A Plan, Be Prepared. Zombie Apocalypses Do Happen!
"whoever forgets his history is condemned to repeat it"
“The Sun of Light shines in the Heart as Love.”
The Truth of Life descends from the world of Eternal Light {the sun} to illuminate the minds, regenerate the hearts, raise and renew the souls of all the sons of Truth destined to constitute the nucleus of the new humanity - Peter Deunov
"Knowledge is the Great Endowment of the Creator that lives within you and allows you to experience & express humanity’s One Spirituality, beyond all divisions of race, culture, nation & religion. Knowledge alone has the power both to guide and protect the individual and to unite and enable humanity to chart a new way forward"
Anonymous Coward
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04/10/2011 11:45 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
lol
Enchanted Wanderer  (OP)

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04/10/2011 11:46 PM
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Re: YOU KNOW GOVERNMENT HAD ACCESS TO READINGS ALL ALONG....WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT?
And this

Jargon and Abbreviation Buster
Radiation Protection is stiff with jargon, acronyms and abbreviations

[link to www.llrc.org]
Time for a new reality [link to www.thevenusproject.com]
Get A Kit, Make A Plan, Be Prepared. Zombie Apocalypses Do Happen!
"whoever forgets his history is condemned to repeat it"
“The Sun of Light shines in the Heart as Love.”
The Truth of Life descends from the world of Eternal Light {the sun} to illuminate the minds, regenerate the hearts, raise and renew the souls of all the sons of Truth destined to constitute the nucleus of the new humanity - Peter Deunov
"Knowledge is the Great Endowment of the Creator that lives within you and allows you to experience & express humanity’s One Spirituality, beyond all divisions of race, culture, nation & religion. Knowledge alone has the power both to guide and protect the individual and to unite and enable humanity to chart a new way forward"





GLP